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  1. Breakthrough Equation
    y = ƒ(x) + ε

    •    y = the outcome or result
    •    X = the input, factors, or pieces needed
    •    ƒ = the function {how input → output}
    •    ε = the presence of error
  2. The Principle of determinism
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  3. Margin of Error
    • p = Estimate of percentage of respondents answering a question 
    • n = Number of respondents that answered the question 
    • The formula involves three basic steps: 
    • 1. The amount of variability in the sample denoted by p 
    • 2. The standard degree of precision of a 95% confidence interval 
    • 3. The sample size denoted by n
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  4. Goal of Analysis
    Solving for Image Upload 3

    is the measure of output

    Y is a function of a series of Xs, The factors affecting Y are a series of Xs.
  5. Calculating Percentile
    • 1. Put all numbers of the data set in numerical order
    • 2. Multiply k% by the total number of numbers n {if you want to know the 90th percentile and you have 25 numbers in the set, you multiply 0.90 x 25 = 22.5}
    • 3. Take that result and round up to the nearest whole number  {23}
    • 4. Count the numbers from left to right {lowest to highest} until you reach the value for from step 3 {Your result would be the 23rd number in the series}
  6. Standard Error of Sample Means
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    • σ = Population standard deviation
    •    (you can use s - sample Standard Deviation)

    n = sample size (should be at least 30)
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