Philosophy Chapter 3

  1. Define fallacy
    Defect in an argument that consists in something other than false premises alone.
  2. Informal fallacies
    • Those that can be detected only by examining the content of the argument.
    • Ex: A chess player is a person. Therefore, a bad chess player is a bad person.
  3. 1. Appeal to Force
    Occurs when an arguer poses a conclusion to another person and tells that person that some harm will come to him if conclusion is not accepted.
  4. 2. Appeal to Pity
    Fallacy occurs when an arguer attempts to support a conclusion by merely evoking pity from reader.
  5. 3. Appeal to People
    Uses desire to get reader to accept conclusion (snobbery/vanity)
  6. 4. Argument against the Person
    Involves two arguers
  7. 5. Accident
    General rule is applied to a specific case it was not intended to cover.
  8. 6. Straw Man
    Committed when arguer distorts an opponents argument for the purpose of more easily attacking it.
  9. 7. Missing the Point
    Premises of argument support one conclusion, and then another.
  10. 8. Red Herring
    Arguer diverts the attention by changing subject
  11. 9. Appeal to Unqualified Authority
    When cited information lacks credibility
  12. 10. Appeal to
  13. 10. Appeal to Ignorance
    When premises state that nothing has been proved one way or the other and the conclusion then makes a definite assertion.
  14. 11. Hasty Generalization
    Reasonable likelihood that the sample is not representative of the group
  15. 12. False Cause
    Whenever the link between premises and conclusion depends on some imagined casual connection that probably does not exist
  16. 13. Slippery Slope
    Conclusion of an argument rests on an alleged chain reaction and there is not sufficient reason to think the he chain reaction will actually takes place.
  17. 14. Weak Anaology
    Analogy is not strong enough to support the conclusion that is drawn.
  18. 15. Begging the question
    Arguer created the illusion that inadequate premises provide adequate support for the conclusion by leaving out a possibly shaky key premise.
  19. 16. Complex Question
    2+ questions are asked in th guise of a single question, and a single answer is given to both of them
  20. 17. False Dichotomy
    When an "either.. or" premise presents two unlikely alternatives.
  21. 18. Suppressed Evidence
    IA ignores evidence that is becomes said fallacy
  22. 19. Equivocation
    Conclusion of an argument depends on the fact that a word or phrase is used in two different senses
  23. 20. Amphiboly
    Arguer misinterprets an ambiguous statement and then draws conclusion based on faulty interpretation
  24. 21. Composition
    Conclusion depends on the erroneous transference of an attribute from the parts of something onto the whole
  25. 22. Division
    Reverse of composition, goes from whole to parts
Card Set
Philosophy Chapter 3
3.4: Fallacies of Presumption and Grammatical Analogy