Philosophy Chapter 3
Defect in an argument that consists in something other than false premises alone.
Those that can be detected only by examining the content of the argument.
: A chess player is a person. Therefore, a bad chess player is a bad person.
1. Appeal to Force
Occurs when an arguer poses a conclusion to another person and tells that person that some harm will come to him if conclusion is not accepted.
2. Appeal to Pity
Fallacy occurs when an arguer attempts to support a conclusion by merely evoking pity from reader.
3. Appeal to People
Uses desire to get reader to accept conclusion (snobbery/vanity)
4. Argument against the Person
Involves two arguers
General rule is applied to a specific case it was not intended to cover.
6. Straw Man
Committed when arguer distorts an opponents argument for the purpose of more easily attacking it.
7. Missing the Point
Premises of argument support one conclusion, and then another.
8. Red Herring
Arguer diverts the attention by changing subject
9. Appeal to Unqualified Authority
When cited information lacks credibility
10. Appeal to
10. Appeal to Ignorance
When premises state that nothing has been proved one way or the other and the conclusion then makes a definite assertion.
11. Hasty Generalization
Reasonable likelihood that the sample is not representative of the group
12. False Cause
Whenever the link between premises and conclusion depends on some imagined casual connection that probably does not exist
13. Slippery Slope
Conclusion of an argument rests on an alleged chain reaction and there is not sufficient reason to think the he chain reaction will actually takes place.
14. Weak Anaology
Analogy is not strong enough to support the conclusion that is drawn.
15. Begging the question
Arguer created the illusion that inadequate premises provide adequate support for the conclusion by leaving out a possibly shaky key premise.
16. Complex Question
2+ questions are asked in th guise of a single question, and a single answer is given to both of them
17. False Dichotomy
When an "either.. or" premise presents two unlikely alternatives.
18. Suppressed Evidence
IA ignores evidence that is becomes said fallacy
Conclusion of an argument depends on the fact that a word or phrase is used in two different senses
Arguer misinterprets an ambiguous statement and then draws conclusion based on faulty interpretation
Conclusion depends on the erroneous transference of an attribute from the parts of something onto the whole
Reverse of composition, goes from whole to parts
Philosophy Chapter 3
3.4: Fallacies of Presumption and Grammatical Analogy