sociology 101 final exam

  1. sociological perspective (imagination)
    • stresses the social contexts in which people live
    • examines how these contexts influence people's lives
  2. Auguste Comte
    • positivism- applying the scientific method to the social world
    • founder of sociology- coined the term
    • social reform
  3. Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism
    • second founder of sociology
    • survival of the fittest- helping the poor was wrong
  4. Karl Marx
    • Class conflict-bourgeoisie and proletariats
    • fixing society- revolution...workers overthrow capitalists
  5. Emile Derkheim
    • social integration- the degree to which people are tied to their social group
    • people with weaker ties are more likely to commit suicide
    • patterns of behavior-recurring characteristics or events
  6. Max Weber
    • religion and capitalism
    • protestant ethic-protestants needing to make money for god
    • spirit of capitalism-desire to incest capital in order to make more money
  7. Jane Addams
    • co founded hull house
    • co winner of Nobel peace prize
    • wanted to reform society
  8. symbolic interactionism
    • symbols are the key to understanding how we view the world and communicate withe one another
    • George Herbert Mead
  9. functional analysis
    • society is a whole unit made up of interrelated parts that work together
    • society is living organism
    • Robert K. Merton was a major proponent
  10. conflict theory
    • society is composed of groups that are competing for scarce resources
    • Karl Marx
  11. manifest function
    an action that is intended to help some part of a system
  12. dysfunction
    harmful consequences of peoples actions
  13. latent functon
    actions that have unintended consequences
  14. latent dysfunctions
    an action that hurts a system unintentionally
  15. steps in sociological research
    • 1. selecting a topic
    • 2. defining the problem
    • 3. reviewing the literature
    • 4. formulating a hypothesis
    • 5. choose a research method
    • 6. collecting the data
    • 7. analyzing the results
    • 8. sharing the results
  16. culture
    the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that are passed from generation to the next
  17. folkways
    • norms that are not strictly enforced
    • walking on the right side of the sidewalk
  18. mores
    core values that we insist on being conformed to
  19. taboo
    refers to a norm so strongly ingrained that even the thought of its violence is greeted with revulsion
  20. subculture
    a world within a larger world of the dominant culture
  21. counterculture
    groups values and norms that place it at odds with the dominant culture
  22. ideal culture
    refers to the values, norms, and goals that a group considers ideal and worth aiming for
  23. real culture
    norms and values that people actually follow
  24. cultural lag
    • not all parts of a culture change at the same pace
    • when one part of a culture changes other parts lag behind
  25. cultural diffusion
    people learn from one another and adopt the things they find desirable
  26. cultural leveling
    • a process in which cultures become more and more similar to another
    • mcdonalds spreading to other countries
  27. ethnocentrism
    a tendency to use our own groups ways of doing things as a yardstick for judging others
  28. cultural relativism
    trying to understand a culture on its own terms
  29. socialization
    how we learn the ways of society
  30. agents of socialization
    individuals and groups that influence our orientations to life-our concepts, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors
  31. mead's theory of socialization
    • imitation- under age 3
    • play-3-6
    • team games-after 6 or 7
  32. cooley's theory of socialization
    • looking-glass self
    • we imagine how we appear to others
    • we interpret others' reaction
    • we develop a self concept
  33. freud's theory
    • id-inborn drives that cause is to seek self-gratification
    • ego- balancing force between the id and the demands of society that suppress it
    • superego-the component of the personality more commonly called the conscience
  34. resocialization
    learning new norms, values,attitudes, and behaviors to match their new situation
  35. total institution
    a place where people are cut off from the rest of society and where they come under almost total control of officials in charge.

  36. social structure
    • typical patterns of a group
    • relationionships between men and women or students or teachers
  37. status
    • a position that someone occupies
    • judge, astronaut, student, waitress
  38. role
    the behavior, obligation and privileges attached to a status
  39. status set
    refers to all the statuses or positions that you occupy
  40. ascribed status
    • involuntary
    • race-ethnicity
    • sex
    • social class
  41. achieved status
    • voluntary-earn or accomplish
    • student, lawyer
  42. status symbol
    symbols that allow people to recognize a particular position
  43. status inconsistency
    • mismatch in status
    • 14 yo in college
  44. master status
    • cuts across all other statuses
    • race, sex
  45. hunting and gathering societies
    have few social divisions and little inequality
  46. pastoral and horticultural societies
    • pastoral-nomadic herding groups
    • horticultural-cultivation of plants
  47. agricultural societies
    • developed cities and culture
    • philisophy music etc
  48. industrial societies
    • steam engine
    • greater inequality- workers vs capitalists
  49. post industrial societies (information)
    • microchip
    • transmit or provide services and info to people who are willing to pay
  50. biotech societies
    products that help fight disease etc
  51. category
    people who share similar statistics
  52. social group
    people who think of themselves as belonging together and who interact with one another.
  53. primary group
    • people who provide intimate, face to face interaction
    • family, friends
  54. secondary group
    • larger groups based on shared interests or activities
    • democratic party
    • college classes
  55. in-group
    groups to which we feel loyalty
  56. out-group
    groups toward which we feel antagonism
  57. social network
    • people who are linked to one another
    • family, friends, acquaintances, people at school¬†
  58. bureaucracies
    • clear levels, with assignments flowing downward and accountability flowing upwards
    • a division of labor
    • written rules
    • written communication and records
    • impersonality and replaceability
  59. dyad
    • smallest possible group
    • 2 people
  60. triad
    3 people
  61. instrumental leaders
    • task oriented
    • keep the group moving toward goals
  62. expressive leader
    • socioemotional
    • give life to a group's morale
  63. authoritarian
    gives orders
  64. democratic
    tries to gain a consensus
  65. laissez-faire
    slightly permissive
  66. Asch experiment
    • cards with lines
    • people saying the wrong answers
  67. deviance
    any violation of norms
  68. differential association
    from different groups we associate with we learn to deviate from or conform to society's norms
  69. control theory
    • inner controls work against our motivations to deviate
    • conscience, morals
  70. labeling theory
    significance of reputations
  71. functionalist on deviance
    • moral boundaries
    • encourages social unity
    • promotes social change
  72. medicalization of deviance
    mental illness
  73. social stratification
    a system in which groups of people are divided into layers based on property, power and prestige
  74. caste system
    birth determines status which is lifelong
  75. class system
    • based on money or material possesions
    • can be acquired
  76. Marx Class
    • bourgeoisie capatilists
    • proletariat workers
  77. Weber class
    • property
    • power
    • prestige
Card Set
sociology 101 final exam
sociology 101 final exam study guide