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  1. fossil find considered an important link in human evolution until it was shown to be fake in 1953
    Piltdown Man
  2. use of two legs rather than four for locomotion
  3. a set of anatomical adaptations that make it possible for an animal to use two legs for locomotion
    bipedal anatomy
  4. member of the family Hominidae
  5. member of the family Ponidae
  6. taxonomic classification placed below subfamily and above genus
  7. member of the subfamily Homininae, which includes the African apes and humans
  8. condition in which the lower first premolar is somewhat sharpened or flattened from rubbing against the upper canine as the mouth closes
    shearing complex
  9. boundary between the Pilocene and Pleistocene epochs, about 1.8 mya
  10. condition in which the jaw projects beyond the upper parts of the face
  11. first lower premolar that exhibits lateral (side to side) compression due to its role as a shearing surface for the upper canine tooth; related to the shearing complex
    sectoral premolar
  12. epoch that occurred between 5.0 and 1.8 mya
  13. evolutionary change and adaptation through both somatic (biological) and extrasomatic (material/cultural) means
    biocultural evolution
  14. epoch dating from 1.8 million to 10,000 years ago
  15. area that consists of two or more habitat types
    mosaic habitat
  16. the hominin genus to which humans belong; characterized by bipedal locomotion, large brains, and biocultural evolution
  17. a ridge running between the parietal bones along the top of the cranium, usually representing increased bone area for the attachment of chewing muscles
    sagittal crest
  18. the characteristic of having larger postcanine teeth than would be expected for body size, measured as megadontia quotient (MQ)
  19. cheekbones; arches created by the meeting of extensions of the temporal and zygomatic bones in the cranium
    zygomatic arches
  20. measure of premolar/molar tooth area relative to body size
    megadontia quotient (MQ)
  21. ability to grip objects forcefully with the phalanges of the hand and yet exert fine-tuned control of the movement of the objects; includes the ability to grip items between the thumb and any of the fingers
    precision grip
  22. a robust projection at the front of the frontal bone on the cranium
    supraorbital torus
  23. relating to the first stone tools in the archaeological record, dating to about 2.5 million years ago and consisting of relatively simple flakes and choppers
  24. raised area, much less pronounced than a saggital crest, where the parietals meet on top of the cranium
    sagittal keel (ridge)
  25. pronounced ridge at the rear-most point on the occipital bone
    occipital (or nuchal) torus
  26. incisor teeth with a shovel-like grooved inner surface
    shovel-shaped incisors
  27. relating to the type of stone tool that follows the Olduwan in the archaeological record, dating to about 1.5 mya and consisting of bifaced tools (flaked on both sides) that are more complex to make and allow more kinds of manipulation than the earlier types
  28. condition in which the width across the orbits is greater than the width of the area behind them (where the frontal, temporal and parietal bones intersect)
    postorbital constriction
  29. those fossil hominins in the genus Homo found in Africa and Eurasia between about 600,000 and 30,000 years ago that reflect morphologies relatively distinct from both Homo erectus and modern humans; referred to as Homo heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis by some
    archaic humans
  30. space behind the last molar tooth and the mandibular ramus
    retromolar gap
  31. type of stone tool production that supplanted the Achulean tool kit and provided a higher quality tool that could be refined for a wide variety of uses
    Levallois technique
  32. stone tool technology centered on a disk-core technique that represented a refinement of the Levallois technique; it allowed tool makers to produce many good flakes and turn them into a wide variety of tools
    Mousterian industry
  33. the indentation on the maxilla above the canine root
    canine fossa
  34. the point where the two halves of the mandible contact one another
    mandibular symphysis
  35. tools made from stone flakes that are at least twice as long as they are wide
    blade tools
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