1. Two Major divisions of immune system
    • Specific
    • Non specific
  2. Specific
    • Fight off specific pathogens by protein to protein interactions
    • Allows us to become to immune to future infections by memory cells
    • B&T cells
  3. Non Specific
    • Defenses that are used to fight off infection in general 
    • Ex: Skin and mucous
    • Skin will not let bacteria or viruses through unless it is penetrated
    • Sweat and oil give skin a pH of 3-5 and discourage bacteria and microbes
    • Mucous traps foreign particles and that are either coughed up or swallowed and digested by the stomach
  4. Lysozyme
    Enzyme in saliva tears and mucous that destroys bacteria cells walls causing them to lyse
  5. Macrophages
    Large while blood cells that circulate looking foreign material to engulf via phagocytosis
  6. Monocytes
    Macrophages name when they are circulating the blood and are able to transport themselves through capillaries into infected tissue

    Once in tissues knowns are macrophages
  7. Psuedopedia
    • used to pull in foreign particles to destroy them with lysosomes
    • use actin and mysosin to make (feet) and put in particles
  8. Antigen Presenting Cells (APC)
    • Ex: macrophages
    • They have the ability to display antigens they engulfed on their cell surface so that they can be recognized by T cells
  9. Antigen
    Foreign particle
  10. Neutrophils
    White blood cells that use phagocytosis but are not APC's
  11. Histamine
    • Responsible for dialating the walls of capillaries, allowing macrophages and neutrophils to enter more easily 
    • Resleased by basophils, and mast cells
    • Increases blood flow to area, and results in redness and heat of injury
  12. Cytokines
    • Chemicals the excite specific immune defenses to activate
    • Released by basophils and mast cells
  13. Lymphocytes
    Major defense used by specific system, B&T cells
  14. B cells
    Are produced in bone marrow and mature here and in spleen
  15. T Cells
    • Are produced in bone marrow and mature in thymus
    • Cannot detect free antigens only those displayed on macrophages
    • Direct killing and overall activation of the immune system
    • Basis for cell mediated immunity
  16. Thymus
    Essential for educating T cells to recognize self antigens (and therefore those that are not self)
  17. Three types of T cells
    • Helper T cells
    • Cytoxic T cells
    • Suppressor T cells
  18. Cytotoxic T cells: Tc
    • Killer T Cells
    • Essential against viruse
  19. Suppressor T cells: Ts
    Involved in controlling the immune response so it doesn't run out of control by suppressing antibodies produced by B cells
  20. Helper T cells : Th
    • Secrete chemicals to help B cells proliferate
    • Helper T cells can bind to molecules displayed by MCH II  like macrophages and this binding triggers immune system to make antibodies
  21. B Cells
    • Make up 30% of lymphocytes are specific for foreign antibodies by Y shaped receptors
    • Secrete antibodies
    • Basis for humoral or fluid immunity
  22. Immunoglobulins
    Antibodies that are produced solely by B cells, B cell can produce any class of immunoglobulins
  23. 5 Classes of Antibodies
    • IgG
    • IgD
    • IgM
    • IgE
    • IgA
    • All Immunoglobin (then letter)
  24. Paratrope
    • Antigen binding site
    • Formed for one variable Heavy and one variable light chain
    • Each antibody has two
  25. Light and Heavy Chains
    • Similar in amino acids but Heavy is longer
    • Involved in antibody diversity
    • Heavy chain is 5'VDJC3'
    • Light chain is 5'VJC3'
    • There are hundreds of V's, dozens of D's and 4-5 J's and C is a constant group
    • They get spiced together to form a unique antibody amino acid sequence
  26. IgG
    Found in phagocytic cells
  27. IgM
    Secreted into the blood as primary immune response
  28. IgD
    Found on B cells they bind antigens together
  29. IgA
    are in salvia milk and respiratory secretions
  30. IgE
    • Found on most cells and elsewhere
    • Are precursors to allergic reactions by releasing histamine
  31. Agglutination/ Neutraization
    Antibodies cross link adjacent antigen molecules so that invaders get stuck together by antibodies and are engulfed by macrophage
  32. Precipitation
    Similar to agglutination but for soluble antigen molecules like small bacterial toxins
  33. Complement Activation
    antibodies bound to foreign cells activate the 20 complement proteins that are turned on in a cascade lie fashion
  34. Opsonization
    • Coating of a foreign cell with antibodies
    • Stimulates Macrophages to engulf and digest these invaders
  35. Classic Pathway to Complement Activation
    • Requires antibodies to bind to antigens
    • Complement proteins bridge the cap between adjacent antibody molecules 
    • Lyse the cell membrane of invader
    • Also activated mast cells to release histamine
  36. Aclassical Pathway of Complement Activation
    • Occurs independantly of antigen-antibody binding
    • Cell surface molecules of antigen can cause cell membrane attack complex without the help of antibodies
  37. Polyclonal
    • Antibodies that arise in natural course of fighting pathogens
    • But from several clones of B ells and cover a wide range of specificity
  38. Monoclonal
    Antibodies that arise from a single clone of a single B Cell
  39. Lag Period
    • The period after exposure to a pathogen but before enough B cels have been made 
    • APC's like macrophages process and display antigens to ThCells 
    • Th Cells activate B cells to form antibodies
    • First exposure lag period is usually 7-10 days
  40. Secondary Response
    Second time a person is exposed to an antigen lag period is much shorter (1-4 days) and anitbodies are typically greater in number than they were at first response
  41. Memory Cells
    • Specific antibody cells that remain after infection
    • Memory B&T cells live for decades
    • Basis of immunity and form concept behind vaccinations
  42. MHC - Major HIstocompatibility
    • Surface cell proteins used in tissue typing
    • MCH 1 displays a small bit of cellular contents on surface of cells, allows for killer T cells to monitor cells contents
    • Cannot distinguish between self and antigen so grabs a bit of both and displays both on surface
  43. MCH I
    • MCH 1 displays a small bit of cellular contents on surface of cells
    • allows for killer T cells to monitor cells contentsCannot distinguish between self and antigen so grabs a bit of both and displays both on surface
    • Killer T cells recognizes antigen and kills it
  44. MCH II
    • Only found in macrophages and B cells
    • Allows cells to display a bit of whatever they ingested through phagocytosis 
    • Helper T cells can bind to molecules displayed by MCH II and this binding triggers immune system to make antibodies
Card Set
Biology GRE