Path 3-2

  1. elevated leukocytes count about eh reference range
  2. absolute number of neutrophil granulocytes in the blood (ANC)
    absolute neutrophil count
  3. an elevated absolute neutrophil count above the reference range. also called neutrocytosis
  4. neutrophilia in response to a benign condition
    leukemoid reaction
  5. an increase in the number of bands and less mature neutrophilia in the blood
    shift to the left
  6. absolute number of neutrophil bands, "ABC"
    band count
  7. 60% peripheral blood
    short life span
    phagocytic and secretors
  8. neutrophilia etiologies
    • increase in neutrophils, common
    • physiologic- stress
    • infection- sepsis, trauma
    • drugs and chemicals- steroids, epi
    • metabolic diseases- diabetes, hyperthyroidism, gout
    • hematologic changes- hemorrhage, hemolysis
  9. neutropenia etiologies
    decrease number in neutrophils

    • splenomegaly
    • drug reactions
    • bone marrow suppression- chemo, alcohol
    • bone marrow replacement- metastatic cancers, lymphoma, leukemia
    • hereditary diseases
  10. many drugs cause this, idiosyncratic, bone marrow suppression

    splenomegaly- common, anemia and/or thrombocytopenia
    • aquired neutropenia
    • -high infection risk <500/microliter, fever common with chemo

    congenital is very rare
  11. 20-30% peripheral blood; increased with viral infections and lymphoid leukemia
  12. low amt in pheripheral blood, regulatory, macrophages, present antigens and cytokines
  13. malignant neoplasm of WBC characterized by involvement of blood and bone marrow
  14. rapid onset, blast cells(immature), fatal if untreated, potentially curable
    acute leukemia
  15. gradual onset, more mature cells(cytes), longer survival, usually incurable
    chronic leukemia
  16. common childhood leukemia
    lymphoblasts replace bone marrow
    anemia and thrombocytopenia
    variable WBC count
    acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    good prog with chemo and transplant
  17. common adults
    myeloblasts with auer rods replace bone marrow
    cause anemia and thromboctyopenic
    acute myeloblastic leukemia

    poor prog
  18. adults
    no symptoms to fatigue, weakness, weight loss, anorexia, infections, splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy
    chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    may not treat if cell count too low
  19. young to middle age, asymptomatic, abdominal fullness, early satiety, weight loss, anorexia, splenomegaly, and bone pain and tenderness
    chronic myeloid leukemia
  20. translocation of chromosomes 9 and 22
    philadelphia chromosome, increased tyrosine kinase activity causes bone marrow to overproduce granulocytes
  21. tyrosine kinase inhibitor
  22. malignant plasma cell diseases
    monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance(MGUS)

    multiple myeloma and more
  23. uncontrolled differentiation of plasma cells from b-cels
    replacement of bone marrow by plasma cells caused punched out appearance of long bones or skull
    multiple myeloma
  24. malignant neoplasms characterized by the proliferation of cells native to the lymphoid tissue

    paleness, lymphademopathy, night sweats, weight loss and fatigue, cough or shortness of breathe, persistent itching, unexplained fever
    malignant lymphomas
  25. mild normochromatic normocytic anemia
    mild thrombotcytopenia and leukopenia
    elevated serum LDH
    malignant lymphomia
  26. usually b-cell origin
    classified via cell type and growth pattern
    neoplastic clones of lymphocytes from cells at arrested stages of differentiation
    non-hodgkins lymphoma
  27. older adult
    small lymphocytic lymphoma
    follicular lymphoma
    freq translocation of 14 and 18 involving igH and bcl-2
    low grade non-hodgekins lymphoma, indolent(little to no pain)

    better prob
  28. increased freq extra-nodal disease
    adults and peds
    T or B cell origin aggressive but responds well
    large, less differentiated, diffuse pattern
    high grade non-hodgekins lymphoma

    large cell lymphoma, burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma
  29. Treatment=

    chemo, stem cell transplant, immunotherapy (Rituxmab, anti CD-20)
    non hodgkins lymphoma
  30. unique B lymphocyte, owl eyes, reed-steinberg cell
    pain with alcohol ingestion
    many subtypes
    hodgkins lymphoma

    • nodular lymphocytes predominant
    • nodular sclerosis
    • mixed cellularity
    • lymphocyte depleted
Card Set
Path 3-2
WBC pathologies