Endogenous proteins which become the target for drug studies include?
Transport Proteins at cell membranes
Proteins that activate a second messenger for kinase activity within cells
proteins that bind to endogenous hormones inside the cell
Describe the first pass effect
After absorption in the small intestine, drugs can be extracted by the liver from the hepatic circulation
Pharmacogenomics refers to?
A branch of pharmacogenetics which looks at the proteins (receptors, enzymes cell markers) which are important for drug actions in humans.
Absorption from the rectal surface...
Avoids first pass hepatic metabolism as the absorption is directly into the systemic circulation
is a type of enteral administration
is often unreliable because of the presence of rectal contents and expulsion of rectal contents
Acetal coA is important in pharmacokinetics because...
it is a cofactor which transfers an acetyl group to some drugs making them more excretable
TRUE OF FALSE?
Carrier-mediated transport enables small molecules to be carried from an area of high concentration to lower concentration
Carrier-mediated transport is when a carrier (transporter) is used to move a solute down its concentration gradient across the plasma membrane (blood brain barrier/gastroinestinal mucosa).
TRUE OR FALSE?
Diffusion is the passive transfer of a drug from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration across a membrane.
TRUE OR FALSE?
Ionised drugs pass through membranes easier than other drugs
Because GIT is lined with epithelial cells that drugs must pass through. Cell membranes are essentially lipid bilayers which are generally permeable to only small, uncharged (neutral) solutes. Therefore because ionised molecules are charges, and permeability favours neutral species ionised drugs don't pass through membranes easier than other drugs.
Are over the Counter (OTC) medications are safer to administer than medications that require a prescription?
Does drug metabolism result in the formation of a more water-soluble compound?