11-1 Anatomic Descriptors and Fundamental Body Structure

  1. Abdominal-
    Pertaining to the abdomen.
  2. Abdominopelvic-
    Pertaining to the anterior body cavity below the diaphragm.
  3. Anatomic-
    Pertaining to the anatomy or structure of an organism.
  4. Anatomy-
    The study of the physical structure of the body and its organs.
  5. Anterior-
    Before or in front.
  6. Biochemistry-
    A science concerned with the chemistry of plants and animals.
  7. Buccal-
    The mouth; oral cavity.
  8. Cardiac-
    Pertaining to the heart.
  9. Carriers-
    One who carries, transports; with insurance, it’s the company who provides the policy.
  10. Caudal-
    Pertaining to any tail like structure.
  11. Cavities-
    A hollow space, such as within the body or organs.
  12. Cell Membrane-
    The structure that surrounds and encloses a cell.
  13. Centrioles-
    An organelle within the cell.
  14. Chromosomes-
    Structures within the cell’s nucleus that store hereditary information.
  15. Congenital-
    Existing at birth.
  16. Connective-
    That which connects or binds together; one of the five main tissues of the body.
  17. Coronal- (Plane)
    a line drawn through the side of the body from head to toe, making a front and back section.
  18. Cranial-
    Pertaining to the cranium or skull.
  19. Cytology-
    The study of cell life and cell formation.
  20. Cytoplasm-
    Cellular matter, not including the nucleus of a cell.
  21. Cytotechnologist-
    A laboratory specialist who prepares and examines tissue cells to study cell formation.
  22. Dehydration-
    Withdrawal of water from the tissues naturally or artificially.
  23. Diaphragm-
    The muscle of breathing that separates the thorax from the abdomen.
  24. Diffusion-
    A process whereby gas, liquid, or solid molecules distribute themselves evenly through a medium.
  25. Distal-
    Farthest from the center, from the medial line, or from the trunk.
  26. DNA- (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
    Material within the chromosome that carries the genetic information.
  27. Dominant Gene-
    The prevailing gene.
  28. Dorsal-
    Pertaining to the back.
  29. Edema-
    A condition of body tissues containing abnormal amounts of fluid, usually intercellular; may be local or general.
  30. Elements-
    Substances in their simplest form; the basic building blocks of all matter.
  31. Endocytosis-
    A cellular process to bring large molecules of material into the cytoplasm of the cell.
  32. Endoplasmic Reticulum-
    An organelle within the cytoplasm of a cell.
  33. Epigastric-
    Pertaining to the area of the abdomen over the stomach.
  34. Epithelial-
    Pertaining to a type of cell or tissue that forms the skin and mucous membranes of the body.
  35. Etiology-
    The study of the cause of disease.
  36. Exocytosis-
    A cellular process that moves materials within the cell to the outside.
  37. Extremities-
    The terminal parts of the body- the arms, legs.
  38. Filtration-
    The movement of solutes and water across a semipermeable membrane as a result of a force, such as gravity or blood pressure.
  39. Frontal-
    Anterior; the forehead bone; refers to the plane drawn through the side of the body from the head to the foot.
  40. Gene-
    A substance within the chromosome that dictates heredity.
  41. Golgi Apparatus-
    An organelle within the cytoplasm of a cell.
  42. Gross Anatomy-
    Refers to the study of those features that can be observed with the naked eye by inspection and dissection.
  43. Histology-
    The study of cells.
  44. Histotechnologist-
    A laboratory specialist who prepares tissues for microscopic examination and diagnosis.
  45. Homeostasis-
    Maintenance of a constant or static condition of internal environment.
  46. Horizontal-
    Not vertical; flat and even; level; parallel to the plane of the horizon.
  47. Hypertonic-
    Having a higher concentration of salt than found in a red blood cell.
  48. Hypochondriac-
    Pertaining to the upper outer regions of the abdomen below the thorax; also someone with a morbid fear of disease, resulting in abnormal concern about one’s health.
  49. Hypogastric-
    Referring to a abdominal area in the middle lower third of the abdomen.
  50. Hypotonic-
    Having a lower concentration of salt than found in a red blood cell.
  51. Iliac-
    The edge or crest of the pelvic bone.
  52. Inferior-
    Below, under.
  53. Inguinal-
    Referring to the region where the thigh joins the trunk of the body; the groin.
  54. Involuntary-
    Independent of or even contrary to will or choice.
  55. Isotonic-
    Having the same concentration of salt as found in a red blood cell.
  56. Keloid-
    An overgrowth of new skin tissue; a scar.
  57. Lateral-
    Pertaining to the side.
  58. Lumbar-
    Pertaining to the back, specifically to the five vertebrae above the sacrum.
  59. Lysosomes-
    An organelle within the cytoplasm of the cell.
  60. Medial-
    Pertaining to the middle or midline.
  61. Membrane-
    A thin, soft, pliable layer of tissue that lines a tube or cavity or covers an organ or structure.
  62. Microscopic Anatomy-
    An area of study that deals with features that can be seen only with a microscope.
  63. Midline-
    The middle.
  64. Midsagittal-
    An imaginary vertical plane made by dividing the body down the middle, creating equal right and left sides; also known as the midline.
  65. Mitochondria-
    An organelle within the cytoplasm of a cell.
  66. Mitosis-
    The division of a cell.
  67. Muscle-
    A type of tissue composed of contractile cells or fibers that effect movement of the body.
  68. Mutation-
    A change in an inheritable characteristic; cellular change caused by an influence.
  69. Myelin-
    A fatlike substance forming the principal component of the myelin sheath of nerve fibers.
  70. Nasal-
    Pertaining to the nose.
  71. Nerve-
    A group of nervous tissues bound together for the purpose of conducting nervous impulses.
  72. Neurilemma-
    A thin membranous sheath enveloping a nerve fiber.
  73. Neuron-
    A nerve cell.
  74. Normal Saline-
    A solution with the same salt content as that found within a red blood cell.
  75. Nucleolus-
    A structure found within the nucleus of the cell.
  76. Nucleus-
    the vital body in the protoplasm of a cell.
  77. Orbital-
    Refers to the cavity within the skull where the eye is located.
  78. Organ-
    A part of the body constructed of many types of tissue to perform a function.
  79. Organelles-
    Functional structures within the cytoplasm of a cell.
  80. Osmosis-
    The process of diffusion of water or another solvent through a selected permeable membrane.
  81. Osseous-
    Bonelike, concerning bones.
  82. Pathophysiology-
    The study of mechanisms by which disease occurs, the responses of the body to the disease process, and the effects of both on normal function.
  83. Pelvic-
    Pertaining to the pelvis.
  84. Peritoneum-
    The membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs.
  85. Phagocytosis-
    Ingestion and digestion of bacteria and particles by phagocytes.
  86. Physiology-
    The study of the function of the cells, tissues, and organs of the body.
  87. Pinocytosis-
    The process whereby a cell engulfs large amounts of liquid.
  88. Posterior-
    Toward the rear or back or toward the caudal end.
  89. Proximal-
    Nearest the point of attachment.
  90. Pubic-
    Pertaining to the middle section of the lower third of the abdomen, also referred to as the Hypogastric.
  91. Quadrant-
    One of four regions, as of the abdomen, divided for identification purposes.
  92. Recessive Gene-
    Apparently suppressed in crossbred offspring in preference for a characteristic from the other parent.
  93. Retroperitoneal-
    Behind the peritoneum; posterior to the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity.
  94. Ribosome-
    An organelle within the cytoplasm of a cell.
  95. Skeletal-
    Pertaining to the skeleton or bony structure; also to the muscles attached to the skeleton to permit movement.
  96. Smooth-
    A type of involuntary muscle tissue found in internal organs.
  97. Spinal-
    Pertaining to the spinal column, canal, or chord.
  98. Striated-
    A type of muscle tissue marked with stripes or striae.
  99. Superior-
    Above or higher than.
  100. Syndrome-
    The combination of symptoms with a disease or disorder.
  101. System-
    A group of organs working together to perform a function of the body.
  102. Thoracic-
    Pertaining to the thorax or chest.
  103. Tissue-
    A collection of similar cells and fibers forming a structure in the body.
  104. Trait-
    A feature; a distinguishing feature character or mind.
  105. Transverse-
    Lying across; the segment of the large intestine that lies across the abdomen; a line drawn horizontally across the body or a structure.
  106. Umbilical-
    Pertaining to the umbilicus or navel of the abdomen.
  107. Ventral-
    Pertaining to the anterior or front side of the body.
  108. Voluntary-
    Under one’s control; done by one’s own choice.
  109. X-linked-
    Connected to the cell’s sex chromosome; a characteristic of the sex chromosome.
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11-1 Anatomic Descriptors and Fundamental Body Structure
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