AFAA Section I

  1. 8 Health benefits associated with participation in regular physical activity
    Prevention of weight gain, lower risk of stroke, lower risk of high blood pressure, reduced depression, lower risk of breast cancer, lower risk of type 2 diabetes, lower risk of coronary heart disease, weight loss
  2. How can interval training improve aerobic performance?
    This repetitive form of training leads to the adaptation response. The body begins to build new capillaries, and is better able to take in and deliver oxygen to the working muscles. Muscles develop a higher tolerance to the build-up of lactate, and the heart muscle is strengthened. These changes result in improved performance particularly within the cardiovascular system
  3. 3 physiological adaptations that occur to improve exercise performance and state how or why improvement occurs
    • 1) Increased blood flow - exercise forces the left ventricle to pump larger volumes of blood. Heart pumps more blood per beat.
    • 2) Increased oxygen delivery and carbon monoxide removal -
    • 3) Increased maximal oxygen uptake and aerobic power -
  4. Define energy and its food source
    Energy is the ability to do work. Our main source of energy is the SUN!
  5. Define ATP
    • ATP = Adenosine triphosphate
    • Intracellular carrier of chemical energy produced by the body for muscle work.
  6. ATP-CP system/phosphagen system (Anaerobic Pathway)
    • * Fuel source = chemical
    • * Intensity = high
    • * Duration = 1-5 Seconds
  7. 3 Examples of ATP-CP system/phosphagen system
    • 1) Power lifting
    • 2) 100 & 200 meter running sprints
    • 3) Shot put & discus
  8. Lactic Acid System (Anaerobic Pathway)
    • * Fuel source = glucose - the usable form of carbohydrate in our body
    • * Intensity = High
    • * Duration = 45-90 Seconds
  9. 3 examples of activities that utilize the lactic acid system
    • 1) basketball
    • 2) volleyball
    • 3) prolonged sprints
  10. Aerobic System (Aerobic Pathway)
    • * Fuel Source = Carbs, fats, proteins
    • * Intensity = Low-moderate
    • * Duration = at least 10-15 minutes
  11. 3 Examples of activities that utilize the aerobic system
    • 1) Sleeping
    • 2) walking
    • 3) low intensity, long duration physical activity
  12. Aerobic
    With oxygen, or in the presence of oxygen
  13. Anaerobic
    Requiring no oxygen; usually short spurt high energy activities
  14. Steady State
    After 3-4 min of exercise, oxygen uptake has reached an adequate level; to meet the oxygen demand of the tissues; heart rate, cardiac output and pulmonary ventilation have attained fairly consistent levels.
  15. Excess post-oxygen consumption (EPOC)
    Traditionally known as oxygen debt, refers to oxygen uptake remaining elevated above resting levels for several minutes during exercise recovery.
  16. Oxygen deficit
    A period in which the level of oxygen consumption is below what is necessary to supply appropriate ATP production required of any exercise.
  17. Anaerobic threshold
    The point at which the body can no longer meet its demand for oxygen and anaerobic metabolism is accelerated
  18. Aerobic capacity
    The ability of the body to remove oxygen from the air and transfer it through the lungs and blood to the working muscles; related to cardio respiratory endurance.
  19. Lactic Acid
    The by-product of anaerobic metabolism of glucose or glycogen in muscle
  20. Aerobic
    • * Complete breakdown of glucose
    • * Can utilize carbs, fats, or proteins as fuel
    • * Long-duration activity
    • * Smaller EPOC
    • * Submaximal work (moderate intensity)
    • * CO2 and H2O are end products
    • * Uses oxygen in chemical breakdown
  21. Anaerobic
    • * Partial breakdown of glucose
    • * Can only use carbs as fuel
    • * Short-duration activity
    • * Greater EPOC
    • * Maximal output (high intensity)
    • * Lactic acid is the by-product
    • * doesnt need O2 in chemical breakdown
  22. Stroke Volume
    The volume of blood ejected by each ventricle of the heart during a single stroke
  23. Cardiac Output
    The volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute
  24. Venous return
    the "pumping action" of the muscles in the extremities and respiratory system along with vasoconstriction to move oxygen-poor blood back to the heart
  25. Blood-pooling
    A condition caused by ceasing vigorous exercise too quickly so that blood remains in the extremities and may not be delivered quickly enough to the heart and brain
  26. Vital capacity
    • the greatest volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after the deepest inspiration
    • Valsalva maneuver
    • a dangerous condition that can occur if an individual holds his/her breath causing the glottis to close and stomach muscles to contract, forming an unequal pressure in the chest cavity, reduced blood flow to the heart and insufficient oxygen to the brain. Dizziness and temporary loss of consciousness may occur.
  27. Blood Pressure Norm
    • 120/80
    • Joint
    • The point at which two or more bones meet or articulate and where movement occurs
  28. Ligament
    Bands or sheet-like fibrous tissue that connect bones to bone and reinforce joints from dislocation; they are nonelastic and have limited ROM.
  29. Tendon
    Band of dense fibrous tissue forming the termination of a muscle and attaching muscle to the bone with a minimum of elasticity
  30. Cartilage
    White, semi-opaque fibrous connective tissue; cushions and prevents wear on articular surfaces
  31. Anterior / Posterior
    Front / Back
  32. Medial / Lateral
    Toward the midline / away from the midline
  33. Supine / Prone
    Lying face up / lying face down
  34. Superior / Inferior
    Upper half / lower half
  35. Unilateral / bilateral
    Affects one side of the body / affects both sides of the body
  36. Anatomical planes that divide the body
    • 1) Horizontal (transverse) = top/bottom
    • 2) Sagittal - Sides or left/right
    • 3) Frontal - Front/back
  37. Flexion
    Decreases the angle between 2 bones
  38. Extension
    Increasing the angle between 2 bones; the straightening of a muscle previously in flexion
  39. Abduction
    • Movement away from the midline of the body
    • Adduction
    • Movement toward the midline of the body
  40. Rotation
    Movement around an axis
  41. Circumduction
    Movement in which the extremity describes a 360 degree circle
  42. Agonist
    A prime mover; directly responsible for a particular action
  43. Antagonist
    Acts in opposition to the action produced by a prime mover
  44. Primary Movers
    The muscles performing the work
  45. Assistors
    Muscles that help perform the work
  46. Stabilizers
    Help prevent undesired or unnecessary motions
  47. Isometric
    • A muscle contraction in which the tension remains constant as the muscle shortens or lengthens
    • Example - Planks
  48. Concentric
    • Muscle shortens as positive work is done against gravity
    • Example - Bicep curl
  49. Eccentric
    • Muscle lengthens while contracting, developing tension as when the muscles oppose the force of gravity
    • Example - the action of lowering the dumbbell back down from the lift in a biceps curl is eccentric
  50. Isotonic
    • Tension remains constant as the muscle shortens or lengthens
    • Example - sit ups
  51. Isokinetic
    • Contractions in which the tension developed by the muscle while shortening at constant speed is maximal over the full ROM
    • Example - Arm stroke while swimming
  52. 3 muscle contractions used in Group Exercise setting
    • 1) Concentric
    • 2) Eccentric
    • 3) Isometric

    • Fast twitch muscle fibers
    • Able to generate quick, high intensity contractions but are more easily fatigued
    • Example - short spurt activities such as sprinting
  53. Slow twitch muscle fibers
    • Designed for prolonged submaximal aerobic activities and are slow to fatigue
    • Example - long term low-moderate intensity such as long distance running
  54. Benefits of weight bearing activities
    Increases bone density
  55. Benefits of increased muscle strength
    Increases both physical appearance & physical performance
  56. Benefits of increased muscular flexibility
    Improves tissue elasticity and helps to facilitate movement
  57. 3 postural deviations of the back
    • 1) Scoliosis
    • 2) Kyphosis
    • 3) Lordosis
  58. Stretch reflex - definition, purpose & when it occurs
    A muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle. Maintains a constant length
  59. Diagram of a simple lever with a fulcrum
    Image Upload 2
  60. 6 classes of nutrients
    • 1) water
    • 2) carbs
    • 3) protien
    • 4) fat
    • 5) vitamins
    • 6) minerals
  61. Different types of carbs
    • * Simple - sugars, are primarily found in fruits, vegetables, milk, and milk products
    • * Complex - glucose molecules linked together as polysaccharides, or many sugar units found in grains, legumes and veggies such as potatoes
  62. What are vitamins?
    Non-caloric organic compounds needed in small quantities to assist in such functions as growth, maintenance and repair
  63. Fat Soluble vitamins
    Stored in the liver and can be toxic with over dosing
  64. Water soluble vitamins
    Excreted by the kidneys, not likely to be toxic
  65. What are minerals?
    Inorganic compounds that assist processes such as regulating activity of enzymes and maintaining acid base balance and are structural components of body tissue
  66. 8 Dietary Guidelines outlined by the U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Dept of Agriculture
    • 1) Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups while choosing foods that limit the intake of saturated and transfats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol
    • 2) To prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in food and beverage calories and increase physical activity.
    • 3) Engage in regular physical activity and reduce sedentary activities to promote health, psychological well-being, and a healthy body weight.
    • 4) Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables each day. In particular, select from all five vegetable subgroups (dark green, orange, legumes, starchy vegetables, and other vegetables) several times a week.
    • 5) Consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products.
    • 6) Achieve physical fitness by including cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercises or calisthenics for muscle strength and endurance
    • 7) Consume 3 or more ounce-equivalents of whole-grain products per day, with the rest of the recommended grains coming from enriched or whole-grain products. In general, at least half the grains should come from whole grains
    • 8) Consume less than 10 percent of calories from saturated fatty acids and less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol, and keep trans fatty acid consumption as low as possible.
  67. MyPyramid Diagram
    Image Upload 4
  68. Describe MyPyramid and how participants may benefit from this resource
    MyPyramid offers personalized eating plans and interactive tools to help you plan/ assess your food choices based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. It will help to give participants a better understanding of what they should be eating and how much physical activity they need to maintain a healthy lifestyle.
Card Set
AFAA Section I