Music H + A.txt

  1. Decibals
    Unit used to measure the level of sound waves
  2. Timbre
    The tone quality of an instrument or voice
  3. Form
    Musical plan or pattern
  4. Contrast
    Having a different melody or rhythm
  5. Binary
    Composition with two sections, A and B
  6. Ternary
    Composition with three sections, ABA
  7. Rondo
    A B A C A B A
  8. Sonata allegro form
    • Three part composition
    • A- exposition
    • B- development
    • A- recapitulation
    • Sometimes coda
    • musical essay!!
  9. Homophonic
    One sound, with accompaniment
  10. Monophonic
    One sound, no accompaniment
  11. Polyphonic
    Two or more melodies of equql importance at same time
  12. Rock
    • First develooed in the 1960's
    • Relies on amplified electronic instr.
  13. Classical
    • Origins in religious music
    • European influenced
  14. Traditional
    • The national popular music of any country
    • Go back 100's of years
    • Oral
    • Passed from gen to gen
  15. Jazz
    • Improv
    • Based on time or popular song
  16. Fab five genres
    • Pop
    • Rock
    • Classical
    • Traditional
    • Jazz
  17. Tempo: largo
    Very slow
  18. Tempo: andante
  19. Tempo: allegro
    Moderately fast
  20. Tempo: pnesto
    Very fast
  21. Rock song
  22. Waltz
  23. March
  24. Syncopation
    Temperary shifting of the rhythm accent from an accented beat to a normally unaccented beat
  25. Polyrhythm
    The conflict of two or more rhythms within the same meter ex. African drum circle
  26. Pitch
    Refers to the highness/lowness of a sound
  27. Melody
    Sequence of musical sounds
  28. Contour
    Shape of the melody
  29. Imitation
    Repitition of a melody
  30. Canon
    More complex round
  31. Variation
    The melody is repeated but something has been changed
  32. Retrograde
    Play the melody backwards
  33. Inversion
    Play melody upside down
  34. Dimminusion
    Smaller melody
  35. Augmentation
    Make melody longer
  36. Tonality
    Key or tonal center
  37. Modulation
    When a key or tone center changes in the music
  38. Intervals
    Distance between two pitches
  39. Folk
    the music of a common people of a society or geographical area
  40. Ethnic
    music that is characteristic of a particular culture or group of people
  41. Work songs
    songs that accompany labor such as sea chanteys, sing to pass the time
  42. Occupational songs
    songs about work
  43. Dance music
    square dancing, i.e. skip to my lou
  44. Native american Music purpose
    The music accompanies dance rituals and ceremonies
  45. Native American Instruments
    Drums, rattles, flutes
  46. Native American Songs
    Consist of two or more sections that are repeated, simple melodies
  47. Aerophones
    Sound produced by air being the main vibration source
  48. Chordophones
    Vibrating strings stretched between two points
  49. Idiophones
    A wide variety of percussion instruments
  50. Membranophones
    Drum type that uses a tightened stretched skin
  51. Percussion instrument info
    Makes a sound when you hit shake or scrape, two types, pitched and unpitched
  52. string instruments info
    sound is produced when a string vibrates by plucking or bowing it
  53. wind: woodwind and brass
    Column of air inside an instrument vibrates
  54. Electric instruments info
    electricity amplifies sound waves
  55. Keyboard instruments info
    two types: vibrating string (piano) , vibrating column of air (organ)
  56. Woodwind instr.
    picolo-flute, clarinet, bassoon, oboe, saxaphone
  57. string instr.
    violin, viola, cello, double bass, harp
  58. Brass instr.
    French horn, trumpet, trombone, tuba
  59. Percussion instr.
    Timpani, bass drum, symbol, tambourine, triangle, snare drum, wood block, xylophone, castanets, gong, whip
  60. Violin
    smallest of sting family, plays highest, play melody in orchestra
  61. Viola
    Similar in looks to violin, a bit bigger, plays a lower range
  62. Cello
    similar to violin and viola, much larger, is held between knees
  63. String Bass
    Largest string instrument, lowest notes, AKA double bass, Contra Bass, Bass Viol, Standing Bass
  64. Harp
    47 strings, 7 foot pedals
  65. Trumpet
    smallest brass instr., high range, bell, valves, mouth piece
  66. Tuba
    Largest brass insrt., mid-low range, plays lowest notes, bell points towards cell
  67. French horn
    mellower tone than trumpet, wide variety of pitches, blends with brass and woodwinds
  68. Trombone
    telescoping slide change pitches, no valves, mouth piece, bell
  69. Flute + Picolo
    Originally made of wood, modern made of metal, elaborate keying mechanisms that facilitate rapid playing, highest and smallest ww instr.
  70. Oboe
    uses double reed, high nasal sound, looks like a clarinet
  71. Clarinet
    single reed, looks like oboe, wide range of pitches and timbres, three registers- high middle low
  72. Bassoon
    double reed, big brother of oboe, large wooden tubes, deep nasal sound
  73. Saxaphone
    single reed, made of brass: not a brass instr., invented by Adolph Sax, not a member of the orchestra
  74. Timpani/Kettle Drum
    sounds big, changes tones and pitch
  75. symbols
  76. Bass Drum
  77. Snare
    fast, short
  78. Middle ages church service
    Sung not spoken
  79. Gregorian Chant
    AKA plainsong, plain chant, chant, catholic liturgical chant: only male singers, monophonic, latin
  80. The Mass
    consists of two different kinds, ordinary (repeated in every mass) and proper (specific to a special celebration in the church calender)
  81. Mass: Ordinary
    repeated in every mass
  82. Mass: Proper
    Specific to a special celebration in the church calender
  83. Minstrel
    professional poet musicians who wander the country side performing in castles, taverns, and squares
  84. Sacred
    religious (monks)
  85. Secular
    Non-religious or "pop"
  86. Troubadours
    12th century knights from southern france, from the age of chivalry (fair maidens, honor, crusades)
  87. Trouvieres
    12th + 13th century Noblemen (knights) from Northern France
  88. Meistersingers
    14th + 16th century, german middle class master singers, formed rigid rules to follow in performing and writing music
  89. Instruments of the middle ages
    flutes, recorders, shawns, violins, trumpets, sackbut, crumborn, tambourines, drums, lyre, lute
  90. Medieval Plyphony
    early form of harmony known as organum, young boys sing same thing in diff. octaves, staggered entrances
  91. Renaissance
    1450 - 1600
  92. Chamber Music
    small instr. groups performed in courtyards, balconies, rooms
  93. Court Composers
    Supplied all forms of music- religious, chamber, dance, solo: Bach, Handel, Mozart, Palestrina
  94. Madrigal
    Song style written for a small group of singers who performed as court entertainment
  95. Josquin Des Prez
    used imitation, each voice entered one after another, known for his chansons and motets
  96. Chanson
    French polyphonic song, 17th century
  97. Motet
    a sacred composition for voices
  98. A Cappella
    Literally means "for the chapel"
  99. Baroque Era general
    heavy and grand, instr. plus voices, majestic quality
  100. baroque era performing medium
    chamber orchestra, chorus, soloist (virtuoso), organ, harpsichord
  101. Baroque era rhythm
    steady beat, complicated rhythm, bass continuous
  102. Baroque era melody
    major and minor, loud or soft, no medium (terrace Dynamics)
  103. Concerto
    work for solo instrument(s) in three movements, (fast, slow, fast)
  104. Concerto Grosso
    "large concerto": concerto with soloists
  105. Fugue
    The main subject of a song that is repeated several times in 3-4 parts
  106. Opera
    form of musical theater, invented by poets, artists, and musicians in Italy
  107. Oratorio
    a religious opera with no actors, stage, or scenery
  108. Aria
    An elaborate solo for a vocalist
  109. Recitative
    a speech like section of an opera or oratorio
  110. Cantata
    Short oratorio
  111. Johann Pachelbel
    germany, taught Bach, composed lots of organ and choral music, listening: canon in D
  112. Johann Sebastian Bach
    German, had musical family, most training from his brother christopher, wrote both secular and sacred
  113. George Fredric Handel
    German, wrote sacred and secular
  114. Antonio Vivaldi
    Italian, learned violin from his father, was virtuoso, known as the "Red Headed Priest"
  115. Virtuoso
    Expert musician
  116. Terrace Dynamics
    loud or soft, NO medium
  117. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    Austria, child prodigy, successful, died a poor man in a paupers grave
  118. Joseph Haydn
    Austria, most famous court composer to serve a rich ruler, helped create and improve the symphony and the string quartet, taught both Mozart and Beethoven
  119. Classical Era General
    elegant sound, sophisticated
  120. Classical Era Performing Medium
    symphony on Piano
  121. Classical Era Melody
    creative, scales, chords, rhythm simple and a steady beat, moderate use of loud and soft forms
  122. Opera Elements
    music, dancing, drama, story
  123. Roles in Opera
    Sporanos- heroine, Alto- old woman, servant, rival, villainesses, Tenor- hero, fool, Bass- Villain, older man, king
  124. Libretto
    Script or story (opera)
  125. Opera seria
    serious or tragedy
  126. Opera Buffa
  127. Ludwig van Beethoven
    Germany, first successful freelance musician, lost his hearing, had first modern piano built
  128. Beethovens symphonies:
    louder because he was going deaf, longer, symphony #9 1 hour + vs 20 mins (normal), larger, more instruments
  129. Rock n' roll
    combination of Rhythm and Blues with Country music, has strong rhythmic drive, motivates dance
  130. R&B
    style of music that was played by Black people in the late 1940's, grew out of blues and gosperl, began mainly as dance music, driving rhythm, elements of jazz
  131. Blues
    First performed by African Americans in the 1900's in the souther states of US, "blues" means sad or melancholy state of mind, songs tell of hard times, vocal emphasis, 12 bar blues
  132. Gospel
    Appeared at the end of the 19th century by African slaves who converted to Christianity, joyful and emotional style of singing, originated in souther states, clapping and dancing
  133. Country
    developed from rural folk music (hillbilly music), usually accompanied by fiddles, guitars, banjos
  134. Soul
    Mixture of gospel and R&B
  135. Heavy Metal
    Type of rock music, heavy amplification, aggressive and hostile lyrics, emphasis on electric guitar
  136. Reggae
    developed in Jamaica from R&B and Caribbean style musics, strong off-beat rhythm, calypso (steel band)
  137. Punk
    Anti-establishment rock (going against the system), simplistic music style, often played by untrained musicians, young people expressing how they feel, message political
  138. Rap
    Type of African American urban influenced art music that consists of written or improv. verbal rhymes and recited to rock or funk background, use of samples/excerps from songs, social or political topics
  139. Brazil- Samba
    couple dance, singing soloist and a chorus
  140. Brazil- Bassa Nova
    Brazilian style of pop music and dance in the 1960's
  141. Cuban- Rumba
    uses claves and maracas and incorporates jazz elements
  142. Cuban- Mambo
    a dance for couples
  143. Cuban- Chacha
    a dance for couples
  144. Puerto Rico- Salsa
    spanish for "sauce" or "spicy"- two bar rhythm
  145. Argentina- Tango
    ballroom dance style with elaborate dance movements
  146. Mexico- Mariachi
    mexican folk musicians, guitar, trumpet, violin, string bass
  147. Arab Music
    Music and dancing are social activities, music is not used much in islam except for chanting prayers, male singers produce tense nasal sounds
  148. Arab Music Instrument
    instr. tombak, drum in the shape of an hour glass played with the fingers
  149. African Music General
    Af. language has a very musical quality, drums try to imitate the human voice, music and dance together, call and response
  150. African Music rhythm
    starts out simple, other instruments are slowly added
  151. African Drummers
    don't tap their feet, instruments don't start at the same time, meter is unclear
  152. African Music used as:
    entertainment, celebration, rituals, worship
  153. African Instruments
    Djembe, talking drum, shekere- african tambourine/shaker, mbira- thumb piano, Agogo Bell- kinda like cowbell, two parts to it
  154. Indian Music- Raga
    Melodic form 20-25 notes
  155. Indian music- Tala
    Rhythmic cycle 5-128 beats for unit
  156. Indian Music Instruments
    Sitar, Veena, Tabla
  157. Sitar
    Five strings w/ 13 more strings that resonate, bowl shaped body w/ a row of pegs
  158. Veena
    stringed instrument that produces a drone
  159. Tabla
    two small drums played with hands and fingers
  160. Indian Music Form
    Three layers: 1st- singer or soloist (sitar), 2nd- drone, 3rd- percussion
  161. Chinese Music General
    Based on a five note pentatonic scale, mostly melody w/ very little harmony, string and reed instruments, no brass
  162. Chinese Opera
    Peking- singing, dancing, acrobatics, martial arts
  163. Indonesia: Gamelans
    Made up of different types of percussion instruments
  164. Metallophones
    Metal bard xiolaphone
  165. Franz Schubert
    Austria, studied composition with Salieri, died young of cypholus
  166. Felix Mendelssohn
    German, often compared to Mozart
  167. Fredric Chopin
    Poland, salon performer, went to rich persons home to put on private concerts, body buried in Paris, heart buried in Poland
  168. Franz Liszt
    Austro-Hungary, very passionate
  169. Hector Berlioz
    France, symphony Fatastique was inspired by Harriet Smithson
  170. Peter Tchaikovsky
    Russia, swan lake and nutcracker use folk dances from other countries, 1812 Overture- used gun fire
  171. Gioacchino Rossini
    Italy, The Barber of Seville based upon the same characters found in Mozart's the Marriage of Figaro, married Liszts daughter
  172. Richard Wanger
    Germany, claims to be self-taught, Bayreuth- only opera house in the world that is dedicated to performing Wagner operas
  173. Antonin Dvorak
    Austro-Hungary, Carmen is the most pop opera in music, about two lovers Carmen and Don Jose, not well received, loud
  174. Romantic Era Time
  175. Romantic Era General
    Very emotionally based music/ much more personal and expressive
  176. Romantic Era Performing Medium
    Symphonies, piano concertos/etudes, and operas
  177. Romantic Era Melody
    flowing with rich harmonies, and frequent use of chromatics, full range of dynamics, freer use of rhythm/tempos speeding or slowing
  178. The Art Song or "Leid"
    A musical setting for a poem
  179. Ballade
    Song-like pieces, soothing, relaxing
  180. Etude
    Performed to develop a particular playing technique
  181. Impromptu
    Sounds spontaneous
  182. Fantasia
    Free with Imagination
  183. Scherzo
    Musical Joke
  184. Nocturne
    Night music, written to be played at night, or about the night, minor
  185. Mazurka, Polonaise, and waltz
    Dance Music
  186. Chromatics
    using all the notes found in a scale, all half steps
  187. Program Music
    Instrumental music associated with nonmusical ideas
  188. Romantic Opera
    Emphasized beautiful singing, demanding melodic lines, and elaborate solos (fat viking women idea)
  189. Bel Canto
    "Beautiful singing" was the name given to Romantic Opera
Card Set
Music H + A.txt
The whole kit and caboodle. All the notes you could use.