Research Exam 1

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  1. EBP
    practice based on the best available evidence, patient preferences, and clinical judgment
  2. research utilization
    changing practice based on the results of a single research study
  3. theory
    a set of concepts linked through propositions to provide an explanation of a phenomenon
  4. pyramid of evidence
    ranking of evidence from strongest to weakest
  5. barriers
    factors that limit or prevent change
  6. innovation
    something new or novel
  7. model of diffusion of innovations
    model to assist in understanding how new ideas come to be accepted practice
  8. early adopters
    individuals who are the first to embrace an innovation
  9. laggards
    individuals who are slow or fail to adopt an innovation
  10. research
    systematic study that leads to new knowledge and/or solutions to problems or questions
  11. descriptive research
    research concerned with providing accurate descriptions about phenomena
  12. explanatory research
    research concerned with identifying relationships among phenomena
  13. predictive research
    research that forecasts precise relationships between dimensions or phenomena or differences between groups
  14. basic research
    research to gain knowledge for the sake of gaining knowledge
  15. applied research
    research to discover knowledge that will solve a clinical problem
  16. quantitative research
    research that uses numbers to obtain precise measurements
  17. qualitative rsch
    rsch that uses words to describe human behaviors
  18. empirical evidence
    verifiable by experiences through the five senses
  19. deductive reasoning
    thinking that moves from the general to the specific
  20. Inductive reasoning
    thinking that moves from specific to general
  21. abstract
    the first section of a research article that provides an overview of the study
  22. introduction
    part of a research article that states the problem and purpose
  23. review of literature
    an unbiased, comprehension, synthesized description of relevant previously published studies
  24. theoretical framework
    the structure of a study that links the theory concepts to the study variables
  25. methods sections
    major portion of a research article describing the study design, sample, and data collection
  26. results section
    Component of a research article that reports the met hods used to analyze data and characteristics of the sample
  27. discussion section
    portion of the research article that interpret results and how finding extend the body of knowledge
  28. list of references
    information for each article cited in a research report
  29. cycle of scientific development
    a model of the scientific process
  30. Nazi experiment
    an example of unethical research using human subjects during WWII

    made POW's drink seawater, expose to mustard gas, high altitude experiments, given hypothermia, etc.
  31. Nuremberg Code
    Ethical code for research that uses human subjects
  32. Tuskegee study
    a study during which subjects were denied treatment so the effects of their disease could be studied
  33. Jewish Chronic Disease hospital study
    an unethical injection of cancer to subjects without their consent
  34. willowbrook studies
    an unethical study involving coercion of parents to allow their children to be involved in a study in exchange for admission to a long-term care facility
  35. model of EBP levels of collaboration
    a model explaning how five levels are intertwined to contribute to EBP
  36. individual nurse level
    practice changes that can be implemented by any individual nurse
  37. organizational lever
    when nurses in an organization affect practice changes
  38. translational research model
    provides specific strategies organizations can use to improve adoption of an evidence-based innovation
  39. regional leverl
    when nurses from a large geographic area collaborate to change practice
  40. national level
    ollboration among nurses among the country to affect practice changes
  41. declaration of Helsinki
    an international standard providing physicians guidelines for conducting biomedical research
  42. informed consent
    voluntary participation by research subjects who have been informed of possible risks and benefits
  43. Institutional review boards (IRB)
    a committee that reviews research proposals to determine that research is ethical
  44. belmont report
    a report outlining three major principles for the conduct of ethical research with human subjects
  45. respect for person
    principle that individuals should be treated as autonomous and those with dimished autonomy are entitled to protection
  46. beneficence
    the principle of doing good
  47. justice
    the principle of equity or fairness in the distribution of burdens and benefits
  48. research imperative
    an ethical rule stating that nurses should advance the body of knowledge
  49. therapeutic imperative
    and ethical rule stating the nurses should preform actions to benefit the patient
  50. research problem
    gap in knowledge that requires a solution
  51. case studies
    a description of a single or novel event
  52. pilot
    a small study to test a new intervention before testing with larger samples
  53. generalize
    applying studies from a sample to wider population
  54. systematic review
    a rigorous and systematic synthesis of research findings about a clinical problem
  55. research topic
    a clinical problem of interest
  56. problem statement
    describes the problem addressed in the study
  57. purpose statement
    a statement indicating the aim of the study
  58. research question
    an interrogatory statement describing the variables and population of the research study
  59. associative relationship
    when one variable changes, so does the other variable
  60. covary
    when change in one variable is associate with change in another variable
  61. casual relationship
    when one variable determines the presence or change  in another variable
  62. simple hypothesis
    a hypothesis describing the relationship between two variables
  63. complex hypothesis
    describes the relationship among three or more variables
  64. nondirectional hypothesis
    statement of the relationship between two variables that does not predict the direction of the relationship
  65. directional hypothesis
    describes the direction of a relationship between the variables
  66. null hypothesis
    hypothesis stating that there is no relationship between the variables

    "statistical hypothesis"
  67. statistical hypothesis
    No relationship among the variable;

    "Null hypothesis"
  68. research hypothesis
    states that a relationship between two or more variables exists
  69. Hypothesis OR Empirical testing
    objectively measurable data gathered through the five senses to confirm or refute a hypothesis
  70. Independent variable
    variable that influences the dependent variable or outcome
  71. dependent variable
    Is influenced by the independent variable
  72. Confounding / Extraneous variable
    factors that interfere with the relationship between the independent and dependent variables
  73. PICO model
    • Patient population
    • Intervention of interest
    • Comparison of interest
    • Outcome of interest

    Used to formulate EBP
  74. Secondary Source
    Commentaries, summaries reviews or interpretations of primary sources.  

    Text books, systematic reviews, biographies and general magazines.
  75. Primary Source
    Original information by the person responsible for creating it. 

    Journal articles, book chapters, dissertations or conference proceedings
  76. Peer Review
    Research papers published as primary sources undergo rigorous evaluation by editors
  77. Scholarly, Trade and Popular Literature
    Literature that is specific to one topic.  ie. Magazine for ER nurses.  Can be very scholarly to very general information.
  78. Narrative Reviews
    Based on common/uncommon elements of works without concern for research methods, designs or settings.

    The ROL section is a narrative review.
  79. Integrated Reviews
    Papers that synthesize published studies to answer questions about an interest/phenomena
  80. Meta-Analyses
    Combine results of studies into a measurable format and statistically estimate the effects of proposed interventions.  Include published and unpublished works.
  81. Systematic Reviews
    A combination of Narrative, Integrated and Meta-Analyses. Good for when evidence is needed quickly.
  82. Grey Literature
    Yet to be published works.
  83. Boolean Operators
    and, or or not. words used to link search terms
  84. Metaparadigm
    • 4 concepts to nursing:
    • Person, environment, health and nursing
  85. Conceptual definitions
    Concepts in a theory that sound like dictionary definitions
  86. Operational definitions
    Explicitly state how the variable will be measured
  87. Empirical indicators
    measures of the variables being studied
  88. Annotated ROL
    Separately describes each study
  89. Integrated ROL
    Author summarizes multiple papers within text
  90. Causality
    The relationship between cause and effect or the independent variable has the ability to produce a specific effect on the dependent variable.
  91. Probability
    The chance that an event will occur
  92. Control
    Researchers ability to manipulate, regulate or statistically adjust for extraneous variables
  93. Extraneous variable
    Factors that interfere with the relationship between independent and dependent variables
  94. Bias
    Extraneous variables influence the relationship between IV and DV
  95. Between Groups
    Study design where two groups of subjects can be compared
  96. Within-Groups
    Comparisons are made upon subjects at 2+ times during research
  97. Study validity
    Accepting results as logical based on evidence presented
  98. Internal validity
    The degree to which one can conclude that the IV produced changes to the DV
  99. External validity
    The degree which the results can be generalized to other subjects, settings and times.
  100. Retrospective Designs
    • AKA:  Ex post facto
    • used in epidemiological studies, chart audits, historical interviews
  101. Cross-Sectional Designs
    A snap-shot of data about IV and DV at one point of time
  102. Cohort Comparison
    Using multiple groups (cohorts) in a nonexperimental cross-sectional design
  103. Longitudinal Designs
    Gathering data about subjects at more than one point in time.

    AKA: Prospective design
  104. Panel Designs
    Longitudinal design with the same subjects at multiple time points.
  105. Trend studies
    Long. design with different samples across time
  106. Follow-up Study
    Long design used to follow subjects into the future
  107. Crossover designs
    Experimental design using 2+ treatments
  108. Hawthorne Effect
    Subjects altered behavior to please experimenter
  109. Reactivity
    The influence of participating in a study on the responses of subjects
  110. Effects of Selection (Population representation)
    Threats to external validity when the sample does not represent the population
  111. Experimental Design
    Design involving random assignment to groups and manipulation of the IV
  112. Quasi-experimental Design
    The manipulation of the IV but lacking either random assignment or a control group
  113. Non-experimental Design
    Research design that lacks manipulation of the IV and random assignment
  114. Translational research
    Research for the purpose of linking research findings to the point of care
  115. Community-based Participatory Action Research
    Active involvement of community members throughout the research process
  116. Health Services Research
    Research involving phenomena related to the delivery of health care
Card Set
Research Exam 1
Research terms
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