Chapter 7: Preschoolers, building literacy on lang

  1. what are the major developmental milestones at the preschool period
    • new words, grammatical constructions, and lang functions
    • acquisition of decontextualized lang or displacement is a significant achievement
    • exposure to lang in the written modality and acquisition of important emergent literacy skills
    •  this a crowning achievement of the preschool period
  2. decontextualized language
    • preschoolers add to the quantity and quality
    • they incorporate decontextualized (no clues) language in conversations in addition to contextualized

    relies heavily on lang itself in construction of meaning
  3. what might decontextualized lang not contain
    • context cues and does not assume that a speaker and listener share background knowledge or context as is the case for contextualized lang 
    • (ie child assumes a teacher knows where he or she went over the weekend and begins to talk about it)   
    •     cannot rely on the immediate physical context to help communicate to the listener       use highly precise syntax and vocab to represent events that are beyond the here and now   
    •     fundamental to academic success
  4. contextualized language
    • gournded in our immediate context-the here and now
    •     relies upon background knowledge that a speaker and a listener share, and upon gestures, intonation, and immediately present situational cues
    •     work around meaning of word and figuring out what it means by the sentence
  5. emergent literacy
    • preschool children develop literacy skills such as how print works 
    • emergent literacy: earliest period of learning about reading and writing
  6. what do children's literacy abilities depend on
    the oral lang skills they began to acquire in infancy and toddlerhood
  7. what do children need to have before they are able to make sense of grapheme-phoneme correspondence
    need well developed phonological systems to make sense of letter to sound connection and vocab to derive meaning from text
  8. what are the 3 important achievements in emergent literacy for preschoolers
    Alphabet knowledge: children's knowledge about the letters of the alphabet

    print awareness: children's understanding of the forms and functions of written lang, print has meaning

    phonological awareness: children's sensitivity to the sound units that make up speech (phonemes, syllables, words), sound symbol correspondence (transitioning letter to the sound)
  9. alphabet knowledge
    children growing up in homes where reading is common begin to show emerging knowledge of the alphabet during the first 3 years

    some children know a few letters before they are 2

    children learn to recognize some of the letters in their name

    by 5 children are often familiar with the letters of their name (own-name advantage)

    • include:
    • own-name advantage
    • letter name pronunciation effect
    • letter order hypothesis
    • consonant order hypothesis
  10. alphabet knowledge:
    hypotheses of how a child learns the alphabet
    own name advantage
    learn those letters earlier which occur in their own names
  11. alphabet knowledge:
    hypotheses of how a child learns the alphabet
    letter-name pronunciation effect
    • learn earlier those alphabet letters for which
    • the name of the letter is in the letter’s pronunciation
  12. alphabet knowledge:
    hypotheses of how a child learns the alphabet
    letter order hypothesis
    • letters occurring earlier in the alphabet string
    • are learned before letters occurring later in the alphabet string
  13. alphabet knowledge:
    hypotheses of how a child learns the alphabet
    consonant order hypothesis
    letters for which corresponding consonantal phonemes are learned early in development are learned earlier than letters for which corresponding consonantal phonemes are learned later
  14. achievements in emergent literacy:
    print awareness
    achievements that children generally acquire along a developmental continuum, interest, functions and convention are all apart of print
  15. print interest
    interest in and appreciation for print
  16. print functions
    • print conveys meaning and has a specific function
    • stop sign, bathroom etc
  17. print conventions
    read print left to right and top to bottom
  18. print forms
    specific print units-words and letters
  19. print part too whole realtionships
    letters combine to form words
  20. what influences how a child develops print awareness
    oral lang abilities and the interactions they have with print
  21. achievements in emergent literacy:
    phonological awareness
    • sensitivity to the sound structures of words
    •     emerges incrementally, beginning at 2 through 5
    •     at the shallow level: implicit and rudimentary sensitivity to large units of sound structure, easy and obvious
    •         they can segment sentences into words
    •         segment multi-syllabic words into syllables
    •         detect and produce rhymes
    •         combine syllable onsets with the remainder of the syllable to produce a word (kit ten)
    •         they can detect beginning sound similarities across words

    •     deep level: explicit and analytical knowledge of even smaller phonological segments of speech
    •         count the number of phonemes in words
    •         segment words into their constituent phonemes (m-a-t)
    •         manipulate phonological segments within words
  22. language form at the toddler level
    • speech production acheivements
    • refine speech sound repertoires (more precise phonemes)
    • by 4-5 demonstrate mastery of all but a few more complicated, later developing phonemes (r, l, s, ch, sh, z and th unvoiced)
    • should sound reasonably intelligible
    • receptive phonological continues to develop
    • make sense of alphabetic principle: relationship btw letters or combination of letters (graphemes) and sounds (phonemes)
    • bio and enviromental factors can impact devp
  23. language content at the toddler level:
    grammatical and derivational morphology
    • grammatical morphemes: units of meaning we add that provide additional grammatical precision
    • derivational morphologoy: describes the prefixes and suffixes we add to a word to change its meaning and sometimes its part of speech

    • common derivational morphemes: pre-, -est, -ness, -ly
    •     children acquire morphemes in roughly the same order, even across different langs
  24. what are the 6 factors that contribute to or influence the order that children acqiure grammatical and derivational morphemes
    o      Frequent occurrence in utterance-final position: infants/children most sensitive to sounds and words at end of utterance (mom is baby hungry? baby hears-hungry)

    o      Syllabicity: learn morphemes that constititute a syllable (present progressive ing)

    o      Single relation between morphemes and meaning: first learn morphemes with only one meaning

    • o      Consistency in use: they
    • the names of morphemes that are used consistently (possessive nouns always end in ‘s)

    o      Allomorphic variation:  learn morphemes that have consistent pronunciation before those that are inconsistent (/s/,/ z/)

    o      Learn semantic function:  they first learn morphemes that have a clear meaning (plurals) before learning those with less clear meaning (third person singular “he runs”
  25. what is the greatest area of development in the preschool period
    • verb morphology
    •     inflect verbs with tense, to provied information about time
    •     verb be serves as an important maker of time
    •     copula:  when the verb be or any of its derivatives serve as the main verb in a sentence
    •     auxiliary: when the verb be or its derivatives serve as a helping verb in a sentence
  26. language content at the toddler level:
    language content
    • acquire new words: about 860 words per yr, averaging about 2 new words per day
    • learn an average of 13,000 words by the time they enter kinder
    • use different strategies for acquiring new words than infants

    • fast mapping:
    •     knowledge of semantics and syntax: infer meaning of new words
    •     learn new words through shared storybook reading
    •         new lang content: deictic and relational terms (reading and pointing out words in story)
    •     acquire a general representation of new word with as little as a single exposure

    slow mapping: refine representations over time with multiple exposures to a word in varying contexts (learning to use words in other ways\, ie love, mommy loves you v. i would love to go shopping
  27. extended mapping
    full and complete understanding of a word's meaning
  28. shared storybook reading
    • maternal lang in storybook reading activities contains a more diverse array of syntax and vocab and tend to have a higher level of abstraction than in other lang contexts, including play
    • quality of lang the child hears and the frequency with which the caregiver provides reading interactions may impact lang development

    • deictic terms: use and interpretation depend on the location to the speaker and the listener within a particular setting
    •      here and this=proximity of the speaker
    •      there and that=proximity to the listener

    child must be able to adapt to perspective of the speaker and usually mastered by the time they go to school
  29. lang use and narrative skills
    • child's spoken and written descriptions of real or fictional events from the past, present or future
    • minimally contains 2 sequential independent clauses about the same past event (child is giving narrative)
  30. 2 types of narratives
    • personal: an individual shares a factual event
    • fictional: an individual shares an imaginary event
    • causal sequence unfolds following a cause-and-effect chain of events or provides a reason or rationale for some series of events
  31. what sequence unfolds over time
    temporal sequence
  32. when is a child able to construct true narratives
    • at 4 when a child is able to construct narrative with problem and resolution
    • narrative becomes clearer as their ability to consider the listener's perspective emerges
  33. what is a good indicator for later developing lang skills
    narrative skills
  34. benefits of classrooms with mixed SES background
    • experience more lang interactions, fewer negative interactions, and fewer physical interactions than children in homogeneous classroom (low SES)
    • differences may become more evident because not all children attend preschool and the program quality may differ if they do
  35. effects of gender on lang development:
    issues that could account for gender differences in lang devep
    differences btw girls and boys remain stable throughout the preschool years

    • maturation rates
    • neurological devep
    • interests
    • opportunities to learn because of gender role stereotypes
    • who lang is modeled on
Card Set
Chapter 7: Preschoolers, building literacy on lang
levy craven, summer 2013