Chapter 6: Toddlerhood

  1. referential gestures
    • precise referent and stable meaning across different contexts
    •     holding a fist to the ear to indicate telephone
    •     share some properties of first true words
    •     use signals an impending transition from pre linguistic to linguistic communication
  2. mirror neurons and gestures
    • motor neurons: a type of visumotor neurons related to vision an muscular movement
    •     perform actions (including communicative actions) and observe others perform actions (whether gestures or oral communication)
  3. what are the norms for phoneme attainment
    cusotmary age of production: when 50% of children are able to produce a given sound in an adult-like way in multiple positions

    age of mastery: when a majority of children produce a sound in an adult-like manner
  4. assimilation
    • process by which children change one sound in a syllable so that it takes on the features of another sound in the same syllable 
    •     dog>gog
  5. what are brown's stages of language development
    • stages for utterances of varying syntactic complexity 
    •     MLU-average length in morphemes, of childrens utterances

    • MLU=total # of morphemes/total # of utterances
    •     as lang develops, MLU increases systematically
    •     general standard-calculate MLU using a lang sample of 50 utterances or more
  6. overextension
    also overgeneralization, the process by which children use words in an overly general manner
  7. 3 major kinds of overextensions made by toddlers
    categorical: extend a known word to other words in the same category (all four legged animals are dogs)

    analogical: extend a known word to other words that are perceptually similar (all things round are ball)

    relational: extend a known word to other words that are semantically or thematically related (use one word to relate everything to one action, watercan is flower since child sees mom water flowers with watercan)
  8. under-extension
    • use words to refer to only a subset of possible referents
    •     more common than overextensions
    •     only four legged dogs that look like my dog are dogs
  9. overlap
    overextend in som circumstances and under-extend in other circumstances
  10. what are three possible explanations that child make errors in extension
    category membership: think all member of a category have the same name (cow/horse)

    pragmatic error: know that 2 objects are conceptually different, but do not yet have a name for one of the objects and intentionally substitute a semantically related word

    retrieval error: know a certain word, but unable to retrieve that word and unintentionally select a different word
  11. what is the social pragmatic framework for acquiring new words
    course of interaction with experienced language users

    follow another's gaze and pointing gestures, engage in joint attention, and imitate actions by 9-12 months

    by 12 months of age infants use social cues, including line of regard, gestures, voice direction, and body posture to make inferences about intentions underlying others actions , can tell by the body language if mom is happy, mad, sad etc
  12. toddler learning: fast mapping
    • learn novel words with just a few incidental exposures
    •     lexical representation from brief exporsure to the novel word and its referent (what it does, what it means)

    young children can fast map new words but it is not specific to word learning

    3/4 yr olds and adults can learn and retain a fact about an object as easily as they can learn a name

    not being restricted to word learning is consistent with eveidence for a domain general learning mechanism
  13. what factors contribute to toddlers individuals achievements in language
    • while toddlers develop lang in a predictable manner, some aspects may vary
    • intra-individual and inter-individual lang differences among toddlers may account for these differences
  14. intra-individual differences
    • language is not linear
    • children tend to experience a series of spurts and plateaus in their lang abilities as they develop and may regress

    comprehension of lang generally precedes production/expression

    taking note of the individual child
  15. inter-individual differences
    comprehension generally precedes production in lang learning

    disparity btw size of one's receptive and expressive lexicon continue throughout toddlerhood, school age yr and into adulthood, our individual learning is going to differ from person to person

    looking at a group of children
  16. how do researchers measure lang development in children
    • production tasks:
    • produce, or say, the lang targets under investigation 
    •     unstructured or semi-structured: naturalistic observation
    •     structured and systematic: elicitied imitation tasks and elicited production tasks
  17. unstructured or semi-structured:
    naturalistic observation
    Researchers must consider: number of children to analyze, number of recordings to collect from each child, and the variety of contexts in which to collect samples

      Example of naturalistic observation:  Roger Brown’s (1973) analysis of morphological development including the development of the use of verbs and contractions
  18. structured and systematic:
    elicited imitation tasks
    • natural ability to imitate other's movements and speech sounds in order to gauge their underlying linguistic competence
    •     experimenter produces a target phrase and requests that the child repeat the target back exactly as he or she heard it
    •     in order for child to successfully imitate a target, that target must be a part of the child's grammatical repertoire
  19. elicited tasks
    • produce specific sentence structures
    •     wug test: 
    •         used to investigate children's acquisition of english morphemes, including the plural marker
    •         allomorphs (variants of a morpheme with the same meaning, but different sounds) of the morepheme-s
    •         pseudo word presented to child
  20. comprehension tasks
    • match pictured to target words and phrases or act out phrases that they hear an experimenter say
    •     1. Picture Selection Task
    •         present a lang target and ask child to choose the pic that corresponds to the target
    •             investigate children's understanding of lexical items and syntactic constructions, including distinction btw active and passive voice
    •     2. Act Out Task
    •         Basically charades, ask child to act out an action to investigate their competence with various lang constructions
    •     3. Judgement Tasks
    •          ask child to decide whether certain lang constructions are felicitous in order to understand their level of grammatical competence
    •              truth-value judgement tasks
    •              grammaticality judgment tasks
  21. how do clinicians measure lang development
    • individuals with disabilities act of 2004, reauthorization of sped
    • IDEA

    • Evaluation: determine a child's initial and continuing eligibility for services under IDEA, includes determination of the child's status across developmental areas
    •     structured, standardized, and limited in duration

    • assessment: ongoing procedures used to identify a child's needs, family concerns, and resources
    •     less formal, variety of methods
    •     encourage parent and caregiver participation
Card Set
Chapter 6: Toddlerhood
levy-craven, summer 2013