Science Exam Review Part 2

  1. What is halite composed of?
    • Sodium
    • Chlorine
  2. What are the 5 properties of minerals?
    • Definite mineral composition
    • Inorganic
    • Occurs naturally
    • Always a solid
    • Has crystals
  3. What is crystal size determined by?
    How and where magma cools
  4. How are small crystals formed?
    Magma cools rapidly below the crust
  5. How are large crystals formed?
    Magma cools slowly below the crust
  6. What is a mineral with no crystals?
  7. How can a mineral have no crystals?
    The magma reaches the earth's surface and cools too quickly
  8. How is calcite formed?
    By evaporating mineral liquids
  9. What is magma primarily composed of?
    Oxygen and silicon
  10. What does evaporation speed determine?
    Crystal size
  11. What 2 elements make up 75% of the Earth's crust?
    • Oxygen (46%)
    • Silicon (27%)
  12. what are the eight most common elements in the earth's crust?
    • Oxygen
    • Silicon
    • Aluminum
    • Iron
    • Calcium
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Magnesium
  13. What is a sill?
    Magma that pushes its way between layers of sedimentary rock without causing it to arch.
  14. Dike
    Narrow, flat formation of igneous rock formed in cracks of rocks
  15. Extrusion
    • Hardened lava
    • May be in sheets
  16. What is significant about the Columbian plateau?
    It is an example of an extrusion
  17. About ____ of the rocks on earth are sedimentary
  18. What are some sediments?
    • Mud
    • Sand
    • Gravel
  19. What are each of the three main sediments composed of?
    • Mud=clay
    • Sand=Quartz, Minerals
    • Gravel=Rocks
  20. Cementation
    Pressure on the lower sediments turns them into rock
  21. Compaction
    Pressure on the lower sediments turns them into rock
  22. How are sedimentary rocks classified?
    By texture and composition
  23. Clastic Rocks
    Rocks formed from broken rock pieces
  24. Conglomerates
    Rocks made of rounded pebble pieces cemented by clay, mud, and sand
  25. Breccia
    Sedimentary rocks with sharp fragments
  26. What is limestone?
    A conglomerate formed with sand particles instead of pebbles
  27. What are sandstones commonly formed from?
    Usually quartz, sometimes zircon, garnet, rutile
  28. Where are sandstones formed?
    • Deserts
    • Beaches
  29. Mudrocks
    Clastic rocks formed from mud/clay minerals
  30. What are 2 mudrocks?
    • Shale-mica flakes often
    • Silstone-smaller grains than sandstone, clay
  31. What are 3 organic rocks?
    • Limestone
    • Chalk
    • Coal
  32. What is peat?
    The layer above coal that is only partially coal
  33. Tell me about limestone.
    It is calcium carbonate (calcite.)
  34. Tell me about chalk.
    • It is a very soft type of limestone
    • Calcium carbonate
  35. Tell me about coal
    • Millions of years old
    • Composed of dead ferns
  36. Evaporites
    Water evaporates and leaves mineral deposits
  37. What are 2 rocks that are evaporites?
    • Rock salt-NY, MI, KS
    • Gypsum
  38. Where are rock salt and gypsum often found?
    Between shale and limestone
  39. What are some limestones formed from?
    Ocean water
  40. How are metamorphic rocks formed?
    When other rocks undergo pressure, heat, and chemical reactions
  41. Contact metamorphism
    Rocks heated by direct contact with lava or magma
  42. Regional metamorphism
    • Rocks buried deep beneath the earth's surface are changed by increases in heat and temperature.
    • Occurs over large areas
  43. Foliated Rocks
    Mineral crystals are in bands
  44. Why are some rocks foliated?
    Original crystals flatten, minerals of different densities seperate
  45. List 3 metamorphic rocks and what they came from and their texture.
    • Slate-Shale/Fine
    • Schist-Slate, Granite, Basalt/Medium Coarse
    • Gneiss-Granite/coarse
  46. List 2 unfoliated rocks
    • Quartzite (sandstone/quartz)
    • Marble (limestone)
  47. What are 2 examples of large crystal formations?
    • Beryl in Maine
    • Quartz in Brazil
  48. Tell me about the Beryl in Maine
    It was 82 m long, 8 m wide
  49. Tell me about the quartz in Brazil
    It was 1000 kg
  50. What is individual crystal formation?
    When the crystal faces are obvious
  51. What is massive crystal formation?
    When the crystal faces grow together
  52. List the 3 igneous textures
    • Coarse
    • Fine
    • Glassy
  53. Tell me about mafic mineral content
    • It is denser than continental crust
    • Makes oceanic crust
    • Darker
  54. What is mafic mineral rich in?
    • Magnesium
    • Iron
    • Calcium
  55. Tell me about felsic mineral content?
    • Granite-like
    • Continental crust material
    • Produces quartz and feldspar
    • Light colored
  56. What is felsic mineral rich in?
    • Aluminum
    • Na
    • K
    • Silicon
  57. What are the cements?
    • Silica-Quartz
    • Iron Oxides-Hematite
    • Calcium Carbonate-Calcite
  58. Precipates
    When minerals fall out of solution due to water's composition, not evaporation
  59. What else can affect precipitates?
    • Microorganisms
    • Temperature
  60. What are 3 precipates?
    • Limestone-Calcite
    • Rock Salt-Halite
    • Gypsum-Dolomite
  61. Liguite
    A type of coal that includes brown coal and soft coal
  62. Anthracite
    Type of coal that includes black coal, hard coal
  63. What are the 3 types of change matter undergos?
    • Physical
    • Chemical
    • Nuclear
  64. What is nuclear change?
    The atoms nuclei changes
  65. Fusion
    • Fusion combines nuclei
    • Process that fuels stars
    • Nuclear bombs
  66. Fission
    • Fission splits nuclei
    • Commercially used
    • Atomic bombs
  67. What happens during Alpha Decay?
    • The parent atomic mass # drops by 2
    • The parent mass number drops by 4
  68. Explain why the mass number does not change in beta decay?
    Because the beta particles come from neutrons that turn into protons
  69. What are beta particles?
    Electrons kicked out of neutrons
  70. What is half life used for?
    To date rocks
  71. What is the half life of uranium?
  72. What is the half life of polunium?
  73. What happens during alpha decay?
    2 neutrons and 2 protons are kicked out
  74. What creates fission tracks?
    When the atom splits in half and sprays atomic parts everywhere
  75. The shorter the half life, the ________ the particle speed
  76. What is all land on the earth surrounded by?
  77. What are the 4 major land masses?
    • Asia, Europe, Africa
    • Americas
    • Antarctica
    • Australia
  78. What are the 7 continents?
    • Asia
    • Africa
    • N America
    • S America
    • Antarctica
    • Europe
    • Australia/Oceania
  79. What is a shield?
    A very large area of old exposed rock.
  80. What are the 3 main landscape regions?
    • Mountains
    • Plateaus
    • Plains
  81. What is relief?
    The rate of elevation change
  82. What classifies something as having high elevation?
    At least 600m above surroundings
  83. What is teh tallest mountain in the world?
    Mt Everest, 8 km
  84. What is the tallest mountain in N America?
    Mt McKinley, 6 km
  85. What is tectonic force?
    Folding, faulting
  86. What are examples of fault block mountains?
    The Grand Tetons, an example of normal faulting
  87. What does tectonic force usually produce?
    Groups of mountains
  88. How are mountains usually produced?
    Volcanic activity
  89. What are 3 examples of volcanic mountains?
    • Mt Fuji, Japan
    • Mt Kilimanjaro, Africa
    • Mt St Helens, USA
  90. What is a ountain range?
    A group of mountains that runs parallel to other groups nearby
  91. What are 3 examples of mountain ranges?
    • Tetons
    • Cascades
    • Sierra Nevadas
  92. What is a mountain system?
    A group of mountain ranges in one area
  93. What are 2 mountain systems?
    • Rockies
    • Appalachians
  94. What is a mountain belt?
    A transcontinental group of mountain systems
  95. What are the 3 main mountain systems on the earth?
    • Circum-Pacific
    • Eurasian-Melanesian
    • Mid-Ocean Ridge
  96. What are 2 characteristics of plains?
    • Low elevation
    • Low relief
  97. What are the twon mian types of plains?
    • Coastal plains
    • interior plains
  98. Where are coastal plains found?
    From Louisiana 1000km to Illinois
  99. What is the elevation change of coastal plains?
  100. What were coastal plains covered by?
    Ocean water
  101. Coastal plains are good _________
    Farm land
  102. What is characteristic of most interior plain's elevation?
    Can be up to 450m in the US
  103. What are interior plains formed from?
    Hills and mountains
  104. What do hills and mountains undergo that causes them to become interior plains?
    • Erosion
    • Glaciation
  105. What are characteristics of plateaus?
    • High elevation
    • Low relief
  106. How high of elevation do most plateaus have?
    600+m above sea level
  107. What is the surface of a plateau generally like?
    High and dry
  108. How are plateaus formed?
    • Tectonic stress
    • Volcanic Activity
  109. Where is an example of a plateau formed by tectonic stress?
    • In Colorado
    • The four corners region of CO, AZ, UT, NM
    • Colorado River
    • Grand Canyon
    • Appalachians
  110. Where are examples of plateaus formed by volcanic activity?
    • Columbian plateau
    • The states
  111. Where is the columbian plateau?
    WA, OR, ID
  112. What are some characteristics of the Columbian plateau?
    • Has 300+ volcanoes
    • Fissures over 150mi long
  113. What is the Columbian plateau formed from?
    • Flood basalt that cooled at 1100 degrees Celsius
    • It can be up to 1 mile thick!
  114. Where are the Appalachian Mountain tectonic uplifts found?
    • GA
    • TN
    • KY
    • WV
    • OH
    • PN
    • NY
  115. What are the three main types of stress?
    • Compression
    • Tension
    • Shearing
  116. What does stress cause?
    Rocks to change in shape or volume
  117. 'What are joints?
    Fractures along flat parallel surfaces
  118. How are plateaus formed?
    • Tectonic stress
    • Volcanic activity
  119. How large are plateus generally?
    Thousands of square km
  120. What are faults?
    Fractures along which rocks move
  121. What makes a hanging wall? A foot wall?
    • Rock above a fault=hanging wall
    • Rock below a fault=foot wall
  122. What is compression stress?
    The squeezing of crustal rocks
  123. What happens in compression stress?
    The crust thickens and is pushed higher and deeper
  124. What happens during tension stress?
    • Crustal rocks are pulled
    • The crust thins
  125. What happens during shearing stress?
    Crustal rocks shift
  126. What are the 4 types of faults?
    • Normal fault
    • Reverse fault
    • Lateral fault
    • Thrust fault
  127. What are normal faults due to?
    Tension stress
  128. What do tension stress and normal faults create?
    Hanging wall falls
  129. Where are rift valleys formed from?
    Hanging wall falls
  130. Where are 2 examples of rift valleys?
    • Death Valley in California
    • Great Rift Valley of Africa
  131. What kinds of faults and stress do fault block mountains form from?
    • Normal faults
    • Tension stress
  132. What is an example of a fault block mountain? (2)
    • Sierra Nevadas
    • Grand Tetons
  133. What is a reverse fault due to?
    Compression stress
  134. What happens in a reverse fault with compression stress?
    The hanging wall rises
  135. What kind of fault is a thrust fault?
    A special kind of reverse fault, due to compression stress
  136. How are thrust faults formed?
    The hanging wall rises and slides over the foot wall.
  137. What is a lateral fault?
    Land moves horizontally past other land.
  138. What is an anticline?
    An upward fold in rock
  139. What is a syncline?
    A downward fold in rock
  140. When are rocks more likely to fold than fault?
    At a high temperature or pressure
  141. Brittle rocks are more likely to___
  142. Ductile rocks are more likely to _____
  143. What is important when deciding if a rock folds?
    • Rock type
    • How force is applied
  144. What is likely to happen if gradual forces are applied? A sudden force?
    • The rock will bend.
    • The rock will fault.
  145. What are earthquakes caused by?
    Sudden movements of the Earth's crust
  146. What is the most common cause of earthquakes?
  147. Where does faulting usually occur?
    From the surface to 74km below ground
  148. How deep and long is the San Andreas fault?
    • 32km deep
    • 960km long
  149. In a lateral fault, the east side moves _______ and the west side moves ___
    • South
    • North
  150. What are some causes for tsunamis?
    • Faulting under the ocean
    • Volcanic eruption
    • Landslide
    • Extra terrestrial impact into the ocean
  151. What is the most common cause for a tsunami?
    Faulting under the ocean
  152. What is an example of when a volcanic eruption caused a tsunami?
  153. Where is an example of a possible landslide into the ocean that could cause a tsunami?
    • The Hawaiian islands
    • The canary islands
  154. Where is an example of a possible landslide into the ocean that could cause a tsunami?
    The US continental shelf on the East Coast
  155. What are three extraterrestrial things that could make a tsunami?
    • Asteroid
    • Comet
    • Really big UFO
  156. What is the focus of an earthquake?
    The place of origin
  157. Where are the foci usually?
  158. What is the epicenter?
    The point on the surface above the focus
  159. What do earthquakes form?
    Seismic waves
  160. What do seismic waves do?
    Transfer energy
  161. What are the 3 types of seismic waves?
    • Primary
    • Secondary
    • Surface
  162. What are primary (p) waves?
    Compressional (longitudinal) waves that are the sound waves of the earthquake
  163. What is transmission speed of p waves dependent on?
  164. Which waves travel fastest?
    P waves--they travel faster through solids than liquids or gas and are transmitted faster through denser materials
  165. What kind of waves are P waves?
    • Push-pull waves
    • Particles are dislocated in a back and forth motion
  166. What are secondary waves?
    Transverse waves that follow the P waves in terms of speed
  167. What materials do S waves travel through?
    Solids only
  168. What is true of S waves?
    • Transmission speeds up with the media's density
    • They do not pass straight through the earth
  169. In what way is material displaced in S waves?
    Displaced up and down
  170. What is the slowest seismic wave?
    The L (surface) wave
  171. Where do L waves originate?
    The epicenter
  172. How are particles displaced with L waves?
    • In a circular path that is the same as water
    • The surface appears to rise and fall like water
  173. Which seismic wave causes the most damage?
    The L waves
  174. How much stronger is a 5 earthquake compared to a 2?
    1,000 times stronger
Card Set
Science Exam Review Part 2