Chapter 5: Infancy

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  1. Detection of Nonnative Phonetic Differences
    Ability to notice fine phonetic detail not limited to one’s native language

    In the first year, infants are able to distinguish among the sounds of the world’s languages

    ◦    Adults do not possess this ability

    As infants develop and become attuned to the sounds they hear on a regular basis, their ability to distinguish non-native phonemic contrasts diminishes
  2. Recognizing Nonnative Phonetic Differences:
    Perceptual narrowing
    • the process by which infants start to focus more on perceptual differences that are relevant to them
    •     differences between two native phonemes

    • focus less on perceptual differences that are not relevant to them or that they encounter less often
    •     difference btw nonnative phonemes
  3. Detection of Phonotactic Regularities :
    define Phonotactic Regularities
    • permissible combination of phonemes in one's native language
    •     as infants hear theri native language more and more, they also develop the ability to recognize phonotactic regularities 
    •         ie /ps/ and /h/ which sounds precede one another
  4. Detection of Phonotactic Regularities: 
    When are infants able to differentiate btw permissible and impermissible sequences of sounds
    able to distinguish by 9 months
  5. Detection of Phonotactic Regularities :
    what does the ability to detect phonotactic regularitites help with
    • Ability to detect phonotactic regularities in
    • one’s language helps infants segment words from continuous speech
    •    ie when we are older, we are not able to segment words from a sentence when a foreign language speaker speaks
  6. Categorical Perception of Speech:
    categorical perception definition
    • the ability to categorize input in ways that highlight or delineate differences in meaning
    •     infants develop it over their first year as they are exposed to language
    •     begin by categorizing incoming sounds into speech and non speech sounds
    •         voiced and voiceless /d/ and /t/
  7. Categorical Perception of Speech:
    we are able to distinguish btw sounds in different categories (/p/ and /b/), but without special training, we are not able to distinguish btw variations of sounds within the same category (the first and last /p/ sounds in pup, aspirated and unaspirated

    variations of sounds in the same category
  8. Categorical Perception of Speech:
    voice onset time
    • interval btw the release of a stop consonant (b, p, t, d) and the onset of vocal cord vibrations
    •     used to distinguish btw sounds in different categories
  9. Awareness of Actions and Intention:
    what can infants at 4 months do?
    • can distinguish btw purposeful and accidental actions
    •     focus on the intentions underlying actions rather than the physical details of the action
    •     by 12 months understand rational actions as means to a goal even when they are not abler to view the entire context in which an action takes place

    awareness of movement and their understanding of goals is important precursor for language development
  10. Perceptual Categories:
    how do infants form Perceptual Categories?
    • on the basis of similar-appearing features including:
    •     size, shape, color, texture
    •     so, infant says to self, self, this color is the same as that color.

    • at 3 months, distinguish btw cats and dogs
    • at 4 months, distinguish btw animals and furniture
  11. jargon
    • special type of babble that contains the melodic patterns of an infants native language
    •     not true words because not referential and don't convey meaning
  12. what will an infant with parents who are deaf mimic
    the hand movements and gestures of the parents
  13. Some Early Foundations for Language Development:
    what are the foundations for later language development
    • infant directed speech
    • joint reference and attention
    • rituals of infancy
    • caregiver responsiveness

    • importance of the environment in language development
    • linguistic input adults provide
    • social interactions that infants engage in with others
  14. Some Early Foundations for Language Development:
    infant directed speech
    • IDS
    • Motherese, baby talk, and child directed speech

    • paralinguistic characteristics: describe the manner of speech outside of the linguistic info
    •     high overall pitch, exaggerated pitch contours, slower tempo

    syntactic characteristics: smaller mean length of utterance, few subordinate clauses, more content words, fewer function words

    discourse features: greater use of repetition, more questions than adult directed speech
  15. Some Early Foundations for Language Development:
    infant directed speech features
    • infants prefer ids to ads because attracts infants attention
    • basically speaking like and as child as opposed to adult speaking as an adult
    •     -are you hungry?
    •     -would you like something to eat

    exaggerated vowels, pauses, exaggerate the end of utterances where infants are more likely to remember them, rhythm
  16. Some Early Foundations for Language Development:
    joint reference and attention
    • Vygotsky:
    • language development is a dynamic process that occurs within children’s ZPD as
    • they engage with more advanced peers and adults
    • adults view infants’ interactions
    • as meaningful through the lens of their own culture

    • Adults support infants’ expressions
    • in each of the phases until infants can independently master components of
    • social exchange
  17. joint reference and attention:
    3 major developmental phases with respect to joint reference and attention
    • emergence to social partners
    • emergence and coordination of joint attention
    • transition to language
  18. Phase 1 of joint reference and attention:
    attendance to social partners
    • birth to 6 months
    • infants develop patterns of attending to social partners
    •  infants value and participate in interpersonal interactions, learning how to maintain attention and be "organized" with sustained periods of engagement
    • interest in looking at faces especially parents
    • caregiver responsiveness is important
  19. Phase 1 of joint reference and attention:
    emergence and coordination of joint attention
    • 6 months to a year
    • increasing interest in looking at and MANIPULATING the objects around them, able to grasp, bat away

    • begin to navigate attention btw an object of interest and another person
    •     this signals the emergence of joint attention

    • joint attention: simultaneous engagements of two or more individuals in mental focus on a single external object of focus
    •     symbolizes a critical avenue for early communication development, fosters important communicative exchanges
    •     critical because begins nonverbal communication
  20. Phase 1 of joint reference and attention:
    emergence and coordination of joint attention
    supported joint engagement
    • techniques such as speaking with an animated voice or showing an infant novel objects
    •     maintaining infants attention related to an infants abiltiy to engage in sustained attention at 18 months
    •     sustained attention: looking at objects for longer amount of time 
    •     redirecting infants attention negatively related to infants ability to engage in sustained attention
  21. Phase 1 of joint reference and attention:
    emergence and coordination of joint attention
    what sort of cues are infants adept at using by 16-19 months
    so support inferences about a speaker's referential intentions infants use

    • line of regard
    • gestures
    • voice direction
    • body posture
  22. Phase 1 of joint reference and attention:
    emergence and coordination of joint attention
    intersubjective awareness
    the recognition of when one shares a mental focus on some external object or action with another person, aware that mother and infant are attending to the same thing or not
  23. Phase 1 of joint reference and attention:emergence and coordination of joint attention
    intentional communication
    • the infants attempts to deliberately communicate with others
    •     when infants have intersubjective awareness, they begin to interpret other's referential actions as intentional and begin to use their own actions referentially
    •     starts with sounds and then go to babbling
  24. Phase 1 of joint reference and attention:emergence and coordination of joint attention
    indicators of intentionality
    • infant alternates eye gaze btw an object and a communicative partner 
    • infant uses ritualized gestures, such as pointing
    • infant persists toward goals by repeating or modifying their gestures when communicative attempts fail
  25. Phase 1 of joint reference and attention:emergence and coordination of joint attention
    imperative pointing
    requests to adults to retrieve objects, around 10 months, point at things they want, COMES FIRST
  26. Phase 1 of joint reference and attention:emergence and coordination of joint attention
    declarative pointing
    • social process btw an infant and an adult, don't necessarily want it but indicate that it is there, comes several months after imperative pointing
  27. Receptive language
    • describes the language that infants comprehend
    •     by 1, they comprehend about 80 words
  28. expressive language
    • language that infants produce spontaneously, without imitating another's verbalizations
    •     by 1, they expressively produce about 10 words
    •     usually more advanced than expressive vocab
    •     will be similar in range to the population if population is homogenous to the child
  29. At all stages of life, what sort of language development precedes another type language development?
    receptive language development outpaces expressive (comprehension before action)
  30. variation in receptive and expressive language development:
    language comprehension
    requires only that we retrieve words from our lexicon, whereas language production requires that we retrieve words and apply proper pronunciation as we utter them

    • how do we gauge rate changes:
    •     examining test results like norm referenced measures of lang measuring age development
    •     macarthur-bates comm development inventory

    • comprehension at 1=15-150 words
    • reception at 16 moths of age= 80-300 words
    • ses is a factor
  31. two variables of interest in variation of language development
    ses and quantity of talk parents provide to children
  32. informal language screens
    • checklist format, whereby clinicians and parents can check whether or not the infant exhibits each of the behaviors in question
    •  parent may think they understand what they are doing but are not actually doing it correctly
  33. parent report measures
    • parents report directly on their infants development
    •     quick way to gauge their progress
    •     reliable and valid measure of language ability when compared to other direct assessments
    •     since they spend more time with their children, they are best capable in reporting unique or emerging behaviors
Card Set
Chapter 5: Infancy
Craven Levy, CSUDH
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