1. Labor unions
    Worker organizations that seek to secure economic improvements for their members.They also seek to improve the safety, health,and other benefits (such as job security) of their members.
  2. Craft unions
    Labor unions composed of workers who engage in a particular trade or skill,
  3. Collective bargaining
    Negotiation between the management of a company or of a group of companies and the management of a union or a group of unions for the purpose of reaching a mutually agreeable contract that sets wages, fringe benefits, and working conditions for all employees in all the unions involved.
  4. Industrial unions
    Labor unions that consist of workers from a particular industry, such as automobile manufacturing or steel manufacturing.
  5. Right-to-work laws
    Laws that make it illegal to require union membership as a condition of continuing employment in a particular firm.
  6. Closed shop
    A business enterprise in which employees must belong to the union before they can be hired and must remain in the union after they are hired.
  7. Union shop
    A business enterprise that may hire nonunion members, conditional on their joining the union by some specified date after employment begins.
  8. Jurisdictional dispute
    A disagreement involving two or more unions over which should have control of a particular jurisdiction, such as a particular craft or skill or a particular firm or industry.
  9. Sympathy strike
    A work stoppage by a union in sympathy with another union’s strike or cause.
  10. Secondary boycott
    A refusal to deal with companies or purchase products sold by companies that are dealing with a company being struck.
  11. Strikebreakers
    Temporary or permanent workers hired by a company to replace union members who are striking.
    Increasing worker productivity.

    Increasing demand for union-made goods.

    Decreasing the demand for non-union-made goods.
  13. Featherbedding
    Any practice that forces employers to use more labor than they would otherwise or to use existing labor in an inefficient manner.
  14. Monopsonist
    The only buyer in a market.
  15. Monopsonistic
    Exploitation Paying a price for the variable input that is less than its marginal revenue product; the difference between marginal revenue product and the wage rate.
  16. Bilateral monopoly
    A market structure consisting of a monopolist and a monopsonist.
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