EMT #1

  1. Abandonment
    Termination of care without transfer of care to an equal or greater level of care.
  2. ABO Blood Groups
    • Four groups formed by the presence or absence of antigens know as A and B.
    • Person A - Antigens A - Can have A or O
    • Person B - Antigens B - Can have B or O
    • Person AB - Antigens A & B - Can have A, B, AB, O
    • Person O - No antigens - Can have O
  3. Acidosis
    High concentration of Hydrogen ions. pH below 7.35
  4. Acquired Imunity
    Protection from infection or disease that is developed by the body after an exposure to an antigen or transfered to a person from outside sources (mother through the placent or a serum).
  5. Active Transport
    Movement of a substance through a cell membrane against the osmotic gradient. Requires energy.
  6. Adenosine Triphosphate
    ATP - high energy compound present in all cells.
  7. Adjunct Medication
    agent that enhances the effects of other drugs
  8. Administrative Law
    Law that is enacted by governmental agencies at either the federal or state level. Also called regulatory law.
  9. Adrenergic
    Pertaining to the neurotransmitter norepinephrine
  10. Advance Directive
    a document created to ensure that certain treatment choices are honoured when a pt is unconscious or otherwise unable to express his choice of treatment
  11. Aerobic Metabolism
    Second stage of metabolism requiring oxygen where the breakdown of glucose yeilds energy
  12. Affinity
    Force of attratction between a drug and a receptor.
  13. Afterload
    The resistance a contraction of the heart must overcome in order to eject blood.
  14. Agonist
    The drug that binds to a receptor and causes it to initiate the expected response
  15. Agonist-Antagonist
    a drug that binds to a receptor and stimulates some of its effects while blocking others.
  16. AIDS
    Aquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - group of signs, symptoms, and disorders that often develop as a result of HIV infection
  17. Air Embolism
    Air in the vein
  18. Albumin
    In blood, albumin works to maintain blood volume and pressure and provide colloid osmotic pressure which prevents plasma loss from the capillaries.
  19. Alkalosis
    A low concentration of Hydrogen ions. pH above 7.45
  20. Allergy
    an exhagerated immune response to an environmental antigen
  21. Alveoli
    Microscopic air sacs where gas exchange takes place
  22. Anabolism
    The constructive phase of metabolism in which living cells convert nonliving substances into living cytoplasm
  23. Anaerobic Metabolism
    The first stange in metabolism that does not require any oxygen. Gylcolysis.
  24. Analgesia
    The absence of the sensation of pain
  25. Analgesic
    Medication the relieves the sensation of pain
  26. Anaphylaxis
    Life threatening allergic reaction, shock
  27. Anesthesia
    Absence of all sensations
  28. Anesthetic
    Medication that induces a loss of sensation to touch or pain
  29. Antihyperlipidemic
    A drug used to treat high blood cholesterol
  30. Antagonist
    A drug that binds to a receptor but does not cause the expected response
  31. Antibody
    A substacne produced by B lymphocytes in responce to a foreign antigen that will combind with and kill the invading antigen, thus preventing infection.
  32. Anticoagulant
    A drug that inhibits clotting
  33. Antidysrhythmic
    A drug that is used to prevent and treat abnormal cardiac rhythms
  34. Antiemetic
    Medication used to prevent vommiting
  35. Antigen Processing
    The recognition, ingestion, and breakdown of a foreign antigen.
  36. Antigen
    Markers on the surface of a cell that identifies it as self or non self
  37. Antigen-antibody complex
    formed when an antibody binds to an antigen to deactivate it or destroy it
  38. Antigen Presenting Cells
    Cells such as macrophages that present portions of the antigens they have digested.
  39. Antihistamine
    Medication that arrests the effects of histamine by blocking its receptors
  40. Antineoplastic Agent
    A drug that is used to treat cancer
  41. Antitussive
    Medication that suppresses the stimulus to cought in the CNS
  42. Anxious Avoidant Attachment
    a type of bonding that occurs when an infant learns that his caregivers will not be responsive or helpful when needed
  43. Anxious resistant Attachment
    A type of bonding that occurs when an infant is uncertain about wether or not his care givers will be responsive when needed
  44. Apnea
    Temporary stop in breathing
  45. Apoptosis
    a response in which an inured cell releases enzymes that engulf and destroy itself.
  46. Aspiration
    Foreign material into the lungs
  47. Assault
    An act that unlawfully places a person in apprehension of immediate bodily harm without his consent
  48. Assay
    Test that determines the amount and purity of a given chemical in a lab
  49. Atelectasis
    Alveolar collapse
  50. Atrophy
    Decrease in cell size resulting from a reduced workload
  51. Aural Medication
    drug administered through the mucous membranes of the ear and ear canal
  52. Autoimmunity
    An immune response to self antigens
  53. Autonomic Ganglia
    Groups of autonomic nerve cells outside the CNS
  54. Autonomy
    a competent adult patients right to determine what happens to his body
  55. B Lymphocytes
    The type of WBC that in response to an antigen produce antibodies that will attack the antigen, they develop memory, and confer long term immunity
  56. Barotrauma
    Injury caused by pressure within an enclosed space
  57. Basophils
    Granular WBC that similairly to mast cells, releases histamine and other chemicals that control constriction and dilation of blood vessels during inflammation
  58. Battery
    Unlawful touching of another without individual consent
  59. Beneficence
    The principle of doing good for the patient
  60. Bioassay
    test to assertain a drugs availability within a biological model
  61. Bioavailability
    The amount of a drug that is still active after it reaches its target tissue
  62. Bioequivalence
    relative theraputic effectivness of chemically equivalent drugs
  63. Biologic Half Life
    Time it takes the body to clear 1/2 of a drug
  64. Biotransformation
    Metabolism of drugs
  65. Blood-Brain Barier
    Tight junctions of the capillary endothelial cells in the CNS vasculature through which only non-protein bound, highly soluble drugs can pass
  66. Bolus
    Highly concentrated mass of medication
  67. Breach of Duty
    An action or inaction that violates the standard of care
  68. Buccal
    Cheeks and Gums
  69. Buffer
    Substance that tends to preserve or restore a normal acid base balance by increasing or decreasing the concentration of hydrogen ions
  70. Capnography
    Measurment of exhaled CO2 concentrations
  71. Cardiac Conractile Force
    Strength of contraction
  72. Cardiac Output
    Amount of blood pumped in one minute SV x HR
  73. Cardiogenic Shock
    Shock caused by insufficient CO. Inability of the heart to pump enough bloof to perfuse all parts of the body
  74. Carrier Mediated Diffusion or Cascade
    a series of actions - typical of the actions by plasm protens in the complement, coagulation and kinin systems
  75. Catabolism
    Destructive phase of metabolism in which cells breakdown complex sumstances into simple ones with a release of energy
  76. Catecholamines
    Epinephrine and Norepinephrine, hormones that strongly affect the nervous and cardioascular systems, metabolic rate, temperature and smooth muscle
  77. Cell Mediated Immunity
    Short term immunityprovided to an antigen by a T lymphocyte, which directly attack the antigen but do not form antibodies or memory
  78. Chemotactic Factors
    Chemicals that attract WBC to the site of inflammation, a process called chemotaxis
  79. Cholinergic
    Pertaining to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
  80. Circulatory Overload
    An excess of intravascular fluid volume
  81. Civil Law
    Division of the legal system that deals with noncriminal issues and conflicts between two or more parties
  82. Colonal Diversity
    the development of receptors for every type of antigen. B Lymphocyte work
  83. Colonal Selection
    Process by which a specific antigen reacts with its receptor on the surface on an immature B lymphocyte, therby activating proliferation and diversification
  84. Coagulation System
    Clotting system from a protein called Fibrin. Fibrin forms a network that walls off infection and forms a clot that stops bleeding
  85. Colloid
    IV solution containing large proteins that cannot pass through the capillary membrane
  86. Compenated Shock
    Early stage of shock during which the bodies compensatory mechanisms are able to maintain normal perfusion
  87. Competitive Antagonism
    One drug binds to the receptor and causes the expected effect while also blocking another drug from triggering the same receptor
  88. Complement System
    Group of plasma proteins that are dormant in teh blood until activated. When activated they are involved in most afpects of the inflammatory response
  89. Compliance
    the stiffness or flexibility of the lung tissue
  90. Connective Tissue
    Most abundant; provides support, connection, and insulation
  91. Cortisol
    steroid hormone released by the adrenal cortex that regulates the metabolism of fats, carbs, sodium, potassium, and proteins. Has inflammatory effects.
  92. Cricoid Pressure
    Pressure applied in a posterior direction to the anterior cricoid cartilage in order to occlude the esophagus
  93. Cricothyroid Membrane
    membrane between the cricoid and thyroid cartillages of the larynx
  94. Crystalloid
    IV solution with electrolytes but lacks the larger proteins associated with a colloid
  95. Cytokines
    Proteins, produced by WBCs, that regulate immune responses by binding with and affecting the function of cells that produce them.
  96. Debridement
    the cleaning up or removal of debris, dead cells, and scabs from a wound
  97. Decompensated Shock
    Advanced stage of shock where the bodied mechanisms are no longer able to maintain perusions. Also called progressive shock
  98. Defamation
    Intentional false communication that ruins a persons reputation
  99. Degranulation
    the emptying of granules from the inside of a mast cell into the extracellular environment
  100. Delayed Hypersensitivity Reaction
    A while after exposure to an antigen. Less severe than immediate reactions.
  101. Diapedesis
    Movement of WBCs out of the capillary through gaps that are created in the inflammaroty process
  102. Diuretic
    An agent that increases urine secretion and elimination of body water
  103. Dysplasia
    Change in cell size, shape or appearance
  104. Dyspnea
    Abnormal breathing rate, pattern or effort
  105. Edema
    Excess fluid in the interstital space
  106. Efficacy
    Drugs ability to cause the expected response
  107. Endotoxins
    Toxins that are stored in the walls of bacteria that are released when the bacteria bies
  108. Enteral Route
    Delivery of medication through the GI track
  109. Eosinophils
    Granular WBCs that attack parasites and help control and limit the inflammatory response
  110. Epithelial Tissue
    The protective tissue that lines internal and external body tissues
  111. Expectorant
    Medication used to increase the productivity of a cough
  112. Extrapyramidial Symptoms
    common side effects of antipsychotic medications, inclusing muscle tremors.
  113. Fibrinolytic
    A drug that acts of Thrombi to break it down
  114. Fibroblast
    Cell that secretes collagen
  115. Flail Chest
    Defect in the chest wall that allows it to move freely, causing paradoxical motion
  116. French
    measurment equal to approx 1/3 or a mm
  117. Hematocrit
    Percentage of blood occupied by RBCs
  118. Hemoconcentration
    elevated numbers of WBCs and RBCs
  119. Hemothorax
    Acumulation of blood or fluid in the pleural cavity
  120. Hepatic Alteration
    Changes in a medications chemical composition that occurs in the liver
  121. Histamine
    Substance released during degranulation of mast cells and basophils that through constriction and dilation of blood vessels will increase blood flow to the site of injury and also increase the ppermeability of vessel wall
  122. Humoral Immunity
    Long term immunity to antigens by antibodies produced by B lymphocytes
  123. Hypoxic Drive
    Mechanism that increases respiratory stimulation in response to low oxygen levels
  124. Irreversible Antagonism
    A competitive antagonist irreversibly binds to the receptor site
  125. Leukotrienes
    Slow reacting substances of anaphlyaxis - synthesized by mast cells during inflammatory response that cause vasodilation, vascular permeability, and chemotaxis
  126. Moro Reflex
    Startled newborn; arms wide, fingers spread, grabbing motion
  127. Mucolytic
    Substance that will make mucous more watery
  128. Neurogenic Shock
    Shock resulting from brain or spinal cord injury that causes an interruption of nerve impulses
  129. Neuroleptanesthesia
    Patient remains conscious with decreased sensation of pain
  130. Palmar Grasp
    reflex ilicited when a finger is placed in the palm of an infant
  131. Parasympatholytic
    drug or other substance that blocks or inhibits the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system (anticholinergic)
  132. Parasympathomimetic
    drug or other substance that causes effects like those of the parasympathetic nervous sestem (cholinergic)
  133. Parenteral Route
    Outside the GI tract
  134. Pharmacodynamics
    how a drug interacts with the body to cause its effects
  135. Pharmacokinetics
    How a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted
  136. Pneumothorax
    Accumulation of air or gas in the pleural cavity
  137. Psychoneuroimmunological Regulation
    The interactions of the psychological, neurological, endocring, and immunological factors that contribute to alteration of the immune system as an outcome of a stress response that is not quickly resolved.
  138. Pulsus Paradoxus
    Drop in blood pressure of greater than 10 torr on inspiration
  139. Rh Factor
    Rh positive and Rh negitive blood types are incompatible.
  140. Rooting Reflex
    if cheek is touched by hand or cloth the infant will turn it head
  141. Septicemia
    Spread of toxins through the bloodstream
  142. Sympatholytic
    Blocks the actions of the SNS
  143. Sympathomimetic
    mimics the actions of the SNS
  144. Theraputic Index
    Ration of lethal dose for 50% pop to the effective dose for 50% pop
  145. Thrombophlebitis
    Inflammation of the vein
  146. Tort Law
    Civil wrong committed by one person against another.
Card Set
EMT #1
Glossary Terms from the Textbook