lab quiz 5

  1. evolution
    the process by which life has changed through time
  2. species
    a group of similarly constructed organisms that share common geens
  3. population
    all the members of a species living in a particular area
  4. adaptations
    structures, physiology, and behavior that make an organism suited to its environment
  5. common descent
    the unity of life; all organisms share the same characteristics of life because they can trace their ancestry to the first cell or cells
  6. common ancestor
    ancestors common to at least 2 lines of descent
  7. paleontology
    • earliest life on earth are prokaryotes
    • early atmosphere has no oxygen
    • planet of bacteria; then eventually JOINED by higher organisms
  8. biogeography
    study of distribution of life on planet surface
  9. geologic time scale
    divides the history of the earth into eras, then periods, then epochs. eras are longest amount of time, epochs are shortest
  10. 4 eras oldest to youngest
    • Precambrian
    • Paleozoic
    • Mesozoic
    • Cenozoic
  11. Precambrian periods
  12. Paleozoic periods oldest to youngest
    • cambrian
    • ordovician
    • silurian
    • devonian
    • carboniferous
    • permian
  13. Mesozoic periods oldest to youngest
    • triassic
    • jurassic
    • cretaceous
    •       -ME of dinos
  14. Cenozoic periods oldest to youngest
    • tertiary
    • quaternary
    •     -modern humans appear
  15. fossils
    remains or evidence of some organism that lived long ago
  16. types of fossils
    • carbon film
    • permineralization
    • replacement
    • cast
    • mold
    • simple burial
  17. carbon film fossil
    result of breakdown of organic materials and the subsequent deposition of the resulting carbon
  18. permineralization
    the fossilization process in which the pore spaces of an organism are filled with a mineral
  19. replacement
    the process in which the organic material of an organism is replaced by a mineral
  20. cast
    the result of the naturally filling in of a mold after breakdown of an organism
  21. mold
    an impression left in the host rock by an organism
  22. simple burial
    the burial of an organism with no alteration of the hard parts
  23. absolute dating
    to give rocks an actual date, or date range, in number of years
  24. relative dating
    puts geological events in time order
  25. extinction
    mass extinction
    • extinction: total disappearance of a species or higher group
    • mass extinction: a large number of species disappear in a few million years or less
  26. homologous
    parts of organisms that exhibit similar basic structures and embryonic origins
  27. analogous
    parts of organisms that are similar in function only
  28. vestigial structures
    remnant of a structure that was functional in some ancestor but is no longer functional in the organism in question
  29. molecular clock
    idea that the rate at which mutational changes accumulate in certain genes is constant over time and is not involved in adaptation to the environment
  30. cytochrome c
    • small protein in electron transport chain
    • important because the sequence of amino acids is similar across the tree of life
    • number of differences between cytochrome c amino acid sequence in humans and other organisms increases with the distance in time to their common ancestor
    • ex. monkey cytochrome c is different from humans by 1 amino acid, yeast is different by 51 amino acids
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lab quiz 5
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