Anatomy Study Questions Chapter 17
Olfactory information is first received by which part of the brain?
- primary afferents synapse in the olfactory bulb
- information flows to the olfactory cortex, hypothalamus, and limbic system
- they are the only sensory pathways to reach the forebrain without first synapsing in the thalamus
- they exhibit a considerable amount of convergence
A normal, relaxed inhalation carries about ____ of the inhaled air to the olfactory organs.
Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribriform plate. They synapse on neurons in the:
Gustatory receptors are located:
on the surface of the tongue
What lingual papillae has the largest number of taste buds?
Stimulation of nociceptive receptors within the trigeminal nerve might produce a perception of:
What structure changes the shape of the lens for far and near vision?
The palpebrae are connected at the:
lateral and medial canthus
The neural tunic of the eye:
- contains the photoreceptor cells
- is the deepest layer of the eyeball
- contains ganglion cells
- contains bipolar cells
A structure that is located at the medial canthus and contains glands that contribute to a gritty deposit is the:
The _____ covers most of the exposed surface of the eye.
The opening in the iris through which light passes is the:
What are the functions of tears?
- lubricate the eye
- wash away debris
- nourish the cornea and conjunctiva
- provide oxygen
A ray of light entering the eye will encounter these structures in which order?
conjunctiva --> cornea --> aqueous humor --> lens --> vitreous body --> retina --> choroid
Pupillary muscle groups are controlled by the ANS. Parasympathetic activation causes pupillary _____, and sympathetic activation causes _____.
Why must accommodation occur to view objects closer than 20 feet from the eye?
the light rays are divergent instead of parallel and require more refraction
The optic disc is a blind spot because:
there are no photoreceptors in that area
When a rod is stimulated by light:
- cGMP decreases and sodium channels close
- the plasma membrane becomes hyperpolarized
- the retinal changes from the 11-cis to the 11-trans form
- less neurotransmitter is released
An elongate outer segment containing membranous discs and a narrow connecting stalk that attaches the outer segment to the inner segment describes:
The first step in the process of photoreception is:
absorption of a photon by a visual pigment
The steps that occur in rods when they are excited by photons of light:
1. Retinal changes from the 11-cis form to the 11-trans form
2. Opsin activation occurs
3. Opsin activates transducin
4. Increased phosphodiesterase breaks down cGMP
5. Membrane sodium channels close
6. The membrane hyperpolarizes and the rate of neurotransmitter release declines
Where are the visual pigments located in the rods and cones?
inside membrane discs stacked in the outer segment
A loud noise causes:
- an alerting reaction leading to sympathetic activation
- reflex contractions of middle ear muscles
- a large movement of the tympanic membrane
- a big pressure pulse entering the cochlear duct at that oval window
The ____ ear collects sounds waves and transmits them to the _____ ear, which contains auditory ossicles
The frequency of a perceived sound depends on:
which part of the cochlear duct is stimulated
An infection that damages the vestibular nerve could result in a loss of:
The structure attached to the oval window that transmits vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear is the:
The superficial hard part of the inner ear is called the ____ and contains _____.
bony labyrinth; perilymph
The sensory receptors of the semicircular canals are located in the:
The structure that supports the organ of Corti is the:
The vibrations received by the tympanic membrane are transferred to the oval window by the:
seals the oval window
Anatomy Study Questions Chapter 17