Anatomy Study Questions Chapter 17

  1. Olfactory information is first received by which part of the brain?
  2. Olfactory pathways:
    • - primary afferents synapse in the olfactory bulb
    • - information flows to the olfactory cortex, hypothalamus, and limbic system
    • - they are the only sensory pathways to reach the forebrain without first synapsing in the thalamus
    • - they exhibit a considerable amount of convergence
  3. A normal, relaxed inhalation carries about ____ of the inhaled air to the olfactory organs.
  4. Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribriform plate. They synapse on neurons in the:
    olfactory bulb
  5. Gustatory receptors are located:
    on the surface of the tongue
  6. What lingual papillae has the largest number of taste buds?
    circumvallate papillae
  7. Stimulation of nociceptive receptors within the trigeminal nerve might produce a perception of:
    peppery hot
  8. What structure changes the shape of the lens for far and near vision?
    cilliary body
  9. The palpebrae are connected at the:
    lateral and medial canthus
  10. The neural tunic of the eye:
    • - contains the photoreceptor cells
    • - is the deepest layer of the eyeball
    • - contains ganglion cells
    • - contains bipolar cells
  11. A structure that is located at the medial canthus and contains glands that contribute to a gritty deposit is the:
    lacrimal caruncle
  12. The _____ covers most of the exposed surface of the eye.
  13. The opening in the iris through which light passes is the:
  14. What are the functions of tears?
    • - lubricate the eye
    • - wash away debris
    • - nourish the cornea and conjunctiva¬†
    • - provide oxygen
  15. A ray of light entering the eye will encounter these structures in which order?
    conjunctiva --> cornea --> aqueous humor --> lens --> vitreous body --> retina --> choroid
  16. Pupillary muscle groups are controlled by the ANS. Parasympathetic activation causes pupillary _____, and sympathetic activation causes _____.
    constriction; dilation
  17. Why must accommodation occur to view objects closer than 20 feet from the eye?
    the light rays are divergent instead of parallel and require more refraction
  18. The optic disc is a blind spot because:
    there are no photoreceptors in that area
  19. When a rod is stimulated by light:
    • - cGMP decreases and sodium channels close
    • - the plasma membrane becomes hyperpolarized
    • - the retinal changes from the 11-cis to the 11-trans form
    • - less neurotransmitter is released
  20. An elongate outer segment containing membranous discs and a narrow connecting stalk that attaches the outer segment to the inner segment describes:
    a photoreceptor
  21. The first step in the process of photoreception is:
    absorption of a photon by a visual pigment
  22. The steps that occur in rods when they are excited by photons of light:
    • 1. Retinal changes from the 11-cis form to the 11-trans form
    • 2. Opsin activation occurs
    • 3. Opsin activates transducin
    • 4. Increased phosphodiesterase breaks down cGMP
    • 5. Membrane sodium channels close
    • 6. The membrane hyperpolarizes and the rate of neurotransmitter release declines
  23. Where are the visual pigments located in the rods and cones?
    inside membrane discs stacked in the outer segment
  24. A loud noise causes:
    • - an alerting reaction leading to sympathetic activation
    • - reflex contractions of middle ear muscles
    • - a large movement of the tympanic membrane
    • - a big pressure pulse entering the cochlear duct at that oval window
  25. The ____ ear collects sounds waves and transmits them to the _____ ear, which contains auditory ossicles
    outer; middle
  26. The frequency of a perceived sound depends on:
    which part of the cochlear duct is stimulated
  27. An infection that damages the vestibular nerve could result in a loss of:
  28. The structure attached to the oval window that transmits vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear is the:
  29. The superficial hard part of the inner ear is called the ____ and contains _____.
    bony labyrinth; perilymph
  30. The sensory receptors of the semicircular canals are located in the:
  31. The structure that supports the organ of Corti is the:
    basilar membrane
  32. The vibrations received by the tympanic membrane are transferred to the oval window by the:
    auditory ossicles
  33. Stapes:
    seals the oval window
Card Set
Anatomy Study Questions Chapter 17