Genitourinary System

  1. Pheochromocytomas arise from what type of cells?
    Chromaffin cells
  2. The organ receiving the most radiation burden from either 123 MIBG or 131 MIBG is:
    Thyroid (unblocked)
  3. The most common extracranial solid malignant tumor found in infants and children is:
  4. The standard dose for a voiding cystogram is:
    1.0 mCi of 99m Tc O4
  5. Testicular torsion is:
    A surgical emergency
  6. It is important to tape the penis cephalic when doing a testicular scan because:
    It is very vascular
  7. A testicular scan that show a horseshoe or half-moon shaped area of photopenia surrounding the testicle is like a (an):
  8. The best radiopharmaceutical for diagnosing glomerular filtration abnormalities is:
    99m Tc DTPA
  9. The best radiopharmaceutical for imaging a renal space occupying lesion is:
    99m Tc DMSA
  10. The DTST for a renogram is:
  11. The kidneys span the distance b/n the:
    12th thoracic vertebrae and 3rd lumbar vertebrae
  12. The best view for demonstrating a horseshoe kidney is the:
    Anterior view
  13. When imaging a patient with a ptotic kidney, the technologist should take images in the:
    Supine and upright position
  14. On a renal scan, the right kidney is slightly lower than the left kidney.  Because of this, the technologist should:
    Continue the scan bc this is normal
  15. With planar scintigraphy, the kidney may appear smaller than its normal size if:
    The long axis is not parallel to the surface of the camera crystal
  16. A neobladder made from a portion of the small bowel is called:
    Ileal loop
  17. The most accurate nuclear medicine technique for measuring renal size is:
    SPECT imaging with morphologic agent DMSA
  18. If normal resting cardiac output is 5 L/min; the total renal blood flow would be approximately:
    1.2 L/min
  19. If normal effective renal plasma flow is about 600 ml/min, normal glomerular filtration rate is:
    120 mL/min
  20. ACEI augmented renal studies are performed in patients suspected to have:
    RAS- related hypertension
  21. A morphologic renal tracer is noted for its:
    Retention in the renal parenchyma for a prolonged period of time
  22. The two most common agents used for morphologic renal imaging are:
    99m Tc DMSA and 99m Tc Glucoheptonate
  23. Two common agents used for functional renal imaging are:
    99m Tc MAG3 and 99m Tc DTPA
  24. Absolute renal function typically refers to the:
    ERPF and GFR
  25. Common cortical imaging agents include:`
    99m Tc DMSA and 99m Tc Glucoheptonate
  26. A patient is scheduled for a diuretic renal imaging study. The technologist prepares the radiopharmaceutical and:
    Furosemid (Lasix)
  27. A diuretic renal imaging study is most helpful in differentiating:
    A dilated from an obstructed renal collecting system
  28. A renogram (time-activity curve) shows prompt uptake of the tracer, with activity in the kidney peaking at 3-5 minutes after injection to less than 50% of peak value by 20 minutes.  The technologist should:
    Suspect this to be normal
  29. After the injection of furosemide in a diuretic renal imaging study, the washout activity from the collecting system has a clearance half- time of less than 10 minutes.  this is most likely indicative of a(n):
    Dilated but unobstructed kidney
  30. Morphologic renal imaging can be used to document:
    Global and regional changes in renal function
  31. A patient is scheduled for an indirect cystogram.  The technologist should:
    Prepare the tracer dose for intravenous injection
  32. Patient preparation for testicular scintigraphy includes:
    The taping of the penis over the pubis
  33. The most common radiopharmaceutical used in testicular scintigraphy is:
    99m Tc Pertechnetate
  34. What are 2 reasons for doing a morphologic renal scan?
    • Dx of acute/ chronic polynephritis
    • Determine which kidney is doing more work
  35. What are the three most common radiopharmaceuticals used in renal imaging (functional and morphologic), and what are the standard doses?
    • 99m Tc MAG 3 (Mercaptoacetyltriglycine 3mCi)
    • 99m Tc DTPA (Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid 10mCi)
    • 99m Tc DMSA (Dimercaptosuccinic acid 5mCi)
  36. Explain what happens during a normal renogram
    PERFUSION: 99m Tc MAG3 goes through glomerulla and is uptaken by the tubules

    EXTRACTION: 99m Tc MAG3 is uptake by proximal renal tubule; urine is being made

    EXCRETION: After lasix is administered, urine output is increased causing patient to void and lasix to washout.
  37. List 4 indications for doing a functional renogram
    • - Evaluate renal blood flow and function
    • - Evaluate renal trauma
    • - Dx of renovascular hypertension
    • - Detect and evaluate renal collecting system obstruction
  38. Explain the rule of ten in regards to pheochromocytoma imaging.
    • 10% pediatric
    • 10% malignant
    • 10% bilateral
    • 10% are extra-adrenal
  39. What is Captopril and how does it relate to renal imaging?
    Captopril is an ace inhibitor used to determine whether a patient has renal stenosis contributing to renovascular HTN
  40. MIBG is primarily used to image what type of tumors?
    Pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas
  41. MIBG resembles what two chemicals?
    Norepinephrine and guanethidine
  42. What are some drugs that interfere with MIBG uptake?
    • Cocaine- stop 2 weeks prior to scan
    • Tricyclic antidepressants- stop 6 weeks prior to scan
    • Adrenergic blockers (beta blockers) - stop 2 weeks prior to scan
    • Phenylpropanolamine (Sudafed and other OTC cold drugs)- stop 2 weeks prior
  43. How do you calculate GFR?

    • U= urine concentration (cpm/ml)
    • V= timed urine collection (ml/min)
    • P= plasma concentration (cpm/ml)
  44. Define hydronephrosis
    Dilation of the renal pelvis and ureters
  45. What are the 4 major functions of the kidney?
    • Excretion of waste
    • Resorption of important body constituents
    • Maintenance of acid-base balance
    • Maintenance of body fluid
  46. What is the basic unit of the kidney?
Card Set
Genitourinary System
Nuclear Medicine Registry Review