Chem Exam I

  1. The total glycosylated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1C) levels in a hemosylate reflect the:




    B.
  2. The conversion of glucose or other hexoses to lactate or pyruvate is called:




    A.
  3. Insulin may be described by all of the following statements EXCEPT:




    D.
  4. A normal glucose level of 95 mg/dL is found following a 12 hour overnight fast. This normal glucose level is maintained by:




    D.
  5. Glucose is stored in the muscle and liver as:





    C.
  6. An adult diabetic with renal complications has the following results:

    Sodium    133 mEq/L
    BUN    84 mg/dL
    Glucose    487 mg/dL
    Creatinine    5.0 mg/dL

    On the basis if these results, the calculated serum osmolality is:




    A. Osmolality = (2 x Na) + glucose/18 + BUN/2.8
  7. Each of the following are main group classifications of carbohydrates except:




    B.
  8. Monitoring long-term glucose control in patients with adult onset diabetes mellitus can best be accomplished by measuring:




    D.
  9. Pregnant women with symptoms of thirst, frequent urination or unexplained weight loss should have which of the following tests performed?




    C.
  10. In cases of hypoglycemia, the body responds by releasing:




    D.
  11. Which of the following enzymes catalyzes the conversion of starch to glucose and maltose?




    B.
  12. One of the acute complications of diabetes mellitus is:




    D.
  13. In a type I diabetic, insulin concentration is:




    D.
  14. Autoimmune disorders are associated with which of the following types of diabetes?




    B.
  15. Which of the following statements may be associated with the activity of insulin?




    A.
  16. The hormone that facilitates the entry of glucose into most cells is:





    D.
  17. What are three symptoms or signs of diabetes mellitus?
    • 1. polydipsia - increased thirst
    • 2. polyuria - increased urination
    • 3. polyphagia - increased hunger
  18. Besides glycogen, what can be used by the liver to produce glucose?
    Lipids
  19. What is the process referred to in question 18 known as?




    C.
  20. Where is insulin produced?
    The pancreas - inside the golgi complex of beta cells in the Islet of Langerhans where pro-insulin is cleaved into insulin and C-peptide.
  21. An increase in serum ketones is indicative of an increase in the metabolism of what?
    Fat metabolism (lipids)
  22. Name two of the ketone bodies.
    • 1. acetone
    • 2. acetoacetic acid
    • 3. beta-hydroxybutyric acid
  23. Please differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes based on the following list of features:































     

    TYPE 1

    TYPE2

    Typical age of onset:
    (childhood, adlut)

     

     

    Serum insulin conc.:
    (high, low, normal etc.)

     

     

    Autoimmune association:

     

     

    Typical patient body type:
    (heavy, thin,



    •  
    • TYPE 1
    • TYPE2
    • Typical age of onset:
    • (childhood, adlut)
    • Childhood
    • adult
    • Serum insulin conc.:
    • (high, low, normal etc.)
    • low
    • high
    • Autoimmune association:
    • yes
    • no
    • Typical patient body type:
    • (heavy, thin, average, etc.)
    • thin
    • Average to heavy


  24. A 45-year-old woman has a fasting glucose concentration of 95 mg/dL and a 2-hour postprandial glucose concentration of 105 mg/dL. The statement which best describes this patient’s fasting glucose concentration is:






    C.
  25. What are the consequences of poorly controlled blood glucose levels in a long term (15 years) diabetic? (please list at least 3 consequences)
    • 1. blindness - glaucoma
    • 2. neurodegeneration - neuropathy
    • 3. kidney failure - nephropathy
Author
mbailey585
ID
227664
Card Set
Chem Exam I
Description
Chem Exam I, Carbohydrates, Diabetes, Insulin and Osmolality: 1-25
Updated