Lecture exam

  1. segmentation
    mixes food
  2. pancreatic duct
    leads to the duodenum
  3. swallowing
    • Voluntary phase: tongue pushes bolus of food into pharynx (throat)
    • Involuntary phase: swallowing reflex
  4. gastric juice
    contains hydrochloric acid, intrinsic factor, mucus, pepsinogen
  5. small intestine
    • digests protiens, fats, and carbs
    • aborbs water and nutrients
    • secretes digestive hormones and enzymes
  6. pyloric valve
    the sphincter muscle of the pylorus that separates the stomach from the duodenum
  7. celiac disease
    gluten(wheat protein) intolerance
  8. gingivitus
    tooth decay that influences the inflame of soft gum tissue anound the tooth
  9. hepatitus
    • inflammation of the liver
    • preventable from a vaccine
    • cirrhosis liver failure
    • nausea fatigue jaundice abdominal pain arthritis
  10. lactose intolerance
    the body cannot easily digest lactose, a type of natural sugar found in milk and dairy products
  11. tooth anatomy
    Image Upload 1
  12. layers of GI tract
    • Mucosa: innermost layer, mucous membrane in contact with the lumen
    • Submucosa: layer of connective tissue containing blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves
    • Muscularis: two or three layers of smooth muscle, responsible for movement, motility
    • Serosa: outermost layeranus
  13. trypsin
    digestive enzyme breaks down proteins into peptides
  14. intrinsic factor
    Made by same cells that make acid; needed to absorb vitamin B12 (for NS and rbc)
  15. submucosa
    layer of connective tissue containing blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves
  16. pancreas
    • Exocrine functions
    • Secretes digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate
    • Digestive enzymes include
    • Proteases: trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase
    • Pancreatic
    • amylase
    • Lipase
  17. bile
    emulsifies fats
  18. chief cell
    is a cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen, gastric lipase and chymosin
  19. salivary glands
    • Parotid
    • Submandibular
    • Sublingual
  20. peristalsis
    propelsfood forward
  21. hy. pyloric
    peptic ulcers caused by infection
  22. liver
    bile salt production
  23. gallstones
    crystals may form in gallbladder and obstruct flow of bile
  24. increase sa
    aldosterone increases sodium reabsorption by distal tubules and collection ducts
  25. low density lipids
    • Tend to raise LDL (“bad”) cholesterol
    • Saturated fats
    • Meat, dairy products, palm kernel oil
  26. nervous system
    • reduces blood flow to the kidneys
    • regulates digestion by stretchin receptors in stomach and reflexes increase peristalsis and secretion of gastric juices
  27. urine concentration
    macula dense end of the nephron regulate urine concentration
  28. chronic renal failure
    • Also known as end stage renal disease (ESRD)
    • >60% reduction in functioning nephrons
    • See causes of acute renal failure above
    • 40% of people with Type I diabetes will develop renal failure
  29. alcohol
    • inhibits ADH release
    • ADH increases permeability of the collecting ducts to water and increases conservation of water
  30. water reabsorption
    negative feedback loop regulates solute concentration of the blood it involves increasing or reducing ADH secretion, which will modify water reabsorption of kidneys
  31. regulation of blood volume
    kidney do this by
  32. urea
    • waste product filtered from the glomerular capillaries
    • reabsorbed back into the peritubular capillaries
  33. blood flow nephron
    • Mesangial cells–Located around base of the glomerulus
    • Regulated blood flow within the glomerulus
  34. urine formation
    • 1) glomerular formation
    • -movement of protien-free solutioon offluid and solutes from blood into the glomelular capsule
    • 2) Tubular reabsorbation
    • -return of most of the fluid and solutes into the blood
    • 3.) Tubular secretion
    • -addition of certain solutes from the blood into the tubule
  35. protienurea
  36. vitamin D
    • Exposure of skin to sunlight causes production of an inactive form of vitamin D
    • Inactive form of vitamin D is transported to liver, where it is modified
    • Inactive form of vitamin D is then converted to active form by kidneys
    • Conversion to active vitamin D in kidneys is influenced by activity of PTH (parathyroid hormone)
  37. kidney stones
    • Crystallized minerals
    • Block urine flow
    • Symptoms - pain when lodged in the ureter, pain radiates to the groin, hematuria, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • 80% are calcium stones
  38. micturition reflex
    • relaxation of the urethral sphincter in response to increased pressure in the bladder
    • Responds to stretch receptors in bladder wall–Internal urethral sphincter
    • Smooth muscle–External urethral sphincter
    • Skeletal muscle, under voluntary control
  39. countercurrent exchange
  40. ecoli
  41. nephron
    • functional unit of the kidney
    • Tubule Associated blood supply
    • 1 million nephrons per kidney
    • Each nephron consists of a long thin hollow tube (tubule) plus associated blood supply
    • Role of nephrons: remove approximately 180 liters of fluid from the blood daily, and return most of it, minus the wastes that are excreted
  42. ud blood
  43. peritubular cap flow
  44. renin secretion
    decreased blood volume/ blood pressure cause the release of renin from juxtaglomerular
  45. bp regulation
    • kidneys maintain water balance to regulate blood pressure
    • Involves the kidneys, hypothalamus, and posterior pituitary gland
    • Negative feedback loop regulates solute
    • concentration of the blood–Involves increasing or reducing ADH secretion, which will modify water reabsorption of kidneys–Involves increasing or decreasing thirst
  46. salt balance regulation
    aldosterone renin ANH help maintain salt balance in order to control blood volume
  47. erythropoietin
    regulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow in response to decrease oxygen
  48. LN
    ovulation occurs
  49. condom
    trap sperm
  50. hcg
    • Chorion (embryonic tissue) secretes human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
    • hCG is detected by pregnancy tests (at least 7 days after fertilization)
    • hCG causes corpus luteum to continue to produce estrogen and progesterone for another 9–10 weeks
  51. pid
    Inflammation of the pelvic reproductive organs as a result of bacterial, viral, fungal, orparasitic invasion. Most causative agents are STDs
  52. dysmenorrhea
    painful or difficult menses
  53. herpes
    • HSV-1 &HSV-2
    • TX: no cure, only supportive tx
    • Painful cold sores, genital sores
    • Spread by contact, secretions
  54. endometriosis
    endometrial tissue from the uterus becomes embedded elsewhere like the fallopian tubes

    causes pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, and dysmenorrhea. Sterility and pain during sexual intercourse (dyspareunia) can result.
  55. oxytocin
    stimulates contractions that eject milk
  56. neural groove
  57. twins
  58. gastrulation
  59. cleavage
    • Series of cell divisions without cell growth
    • Produces a ball of identical cells
    • Up to about day four after fertilization
    • Occurs entirely within the oviduct
  60. oogenesis
    the process of the maturation of the female gametes through meiotic division
  61. glands in men
    • Seminal vesicles
    • Prostate gland
    • Bulbourethral gland
  62. intestinal cells
    • Mucosa adaptations increase surface area to facilitate absorption
    • Large folds–Villi:
    • microscopic projections containing blood and lacteal capillaries
    • Microvilli: cytoplasmic projections of epithelial cells of the villi
  63. syphilis
    • Treponema pallidum
    • TX: antibiotics if not in tertiary stage
    • 3 stages:    
    • Chancre
    • Rash
    • Bone/NS involvement
    • Congenital can be fatal
  64. LN and FSH
    • LH (from anterior pituitary) stimulates production of testosterone. Regulates Leydig cells
    • FSH (from anterior pituitary) may enhance sperm formation with Sertoli cells
  65. three germ layers
    • •Ectoderm: outermost layer–Becomes epidermis, nervous system, hair, nails, tooth enamel, parts of eye
    • •Mesoderm: middle layer–Becomes muscle, connective tissue, bone, kidneys, ureters, testes, ovaries
    • •Endoderm: innermost layer–Becomes liver, pancreas, alveoli, bladder
    • lining, lining of urethra, vagina
Card Set
Lecture exam
chapter 14 - 16