The charachteristic that all microorganisms have in common is that they are too small to be seen
with the naked eye
the bacterium that causes the bubonic plaugue is
The irish potato famine was caused by a fungus called
Hornando Cortez brought infectious diseases such as _____________& ____________to Native Americans
smallpox & measles
Warfare and infectious diseases are connected because of _____, _________, and exposure to vulnerable diseases.
In addition, would related bacterial infections such as _____&_____ are a constant threat.
poor sanitation & malnutrition
tetanus & gangrene
List the 6 subgroups in microbiology:
bacteria, archaea, algae, fungi, protazoa, and viruses.
The 6 subgroups are not closely related but are grouped together because of their _______ as well as he teniques used for identifying them, cultivating them, and studying them.
Microbes are charachterized by being either:
prokaryote or eukaryote
do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles.
do have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles.
List 2 examples of a prokaryote
archaea & bacteria
List 4 examples of a eukaryote
protist, fungi, plants, animals.
List the shapes of bacteria:
rod, spherical, helical, comma shaped, starshaped, or square.
some bacteria are autotrophic, which means they make thier own food thru
some bacteria are heterotrophic which means they obain thier nutrients from
Some baceria are chemotrophic which means they obtain thier nutrients from
Some bacteria can lie in freezing temps, while others can live in
higher than boiling temps
Some bacteria have __________while others are not capable of moving.
Some bacteria are pathogenic while others are
ancient bacteria are called
archae live in hostile enviroments such as extreme heat, acidic environments, and areas of high concentrations of
If a microbe is discovered in a local waterway, with high temp & high acidity & it does not cause human diseases it probably belongs to a group of
archaea are non-
algae are eukaryotic organisms that
phytoplankton are microscopic organisms found on the surface of ________&______
marine & freshwater environments
Are fungi eukaryotic or prokaryotic?
are fungi autotrophic or heterotrophic?
in humans, some fungi may cause ringworm, athelete's foot, or
List examples of fungi
are protozoa autotrophs or heterotrophs?
List 2 diseases caused by protozoa
malaria & african sleeping sickness
Viruses contain either RNA or DNA that is surrounded by a protein coat called a
what kind of microscope is used to view a virus
are viruses a cell?
list 3 diseases caused by viruses
Aids, smallpox chickenpox, yellowfever, polio
Helminthes are worms that belong to the
list 2 types of disease causing helminthes
flatworms & roundworms
VAn Leeuwenhoek invented
the first handheld microscope.
what is spontaneous generation
formation of living things from non-living matter
Francesco Redi rejected
In pasteur's experiments on spontaneous generation, the purpose of the curve in his flasks containing meat broth was to
permit circulation of air
a researcher attepts to duplicate the experiments on spontaneous generation conducted by pasteur. Nutrient broth is sealed in glass flasks with curved necks and is sterilized with heat. the broth is cooled to room temperature. After 48 hours the research observes that bacteria populate the broth in the flask. The best explanation for this observation is that the bacteria studied can form
Koch's postulates were formulated while he was studying __________, a disease of sheep, cattle, and humans.
List Koch's Postulates:
1-identify icrobial cells present in blood of infected anials
2-culture te microorganisms in a petri dish (outside the animal)
3-inject a healthy animal with the cultured bactrial cells.
4- observe the infected animal and examine its blood for the same microbe that caused the infection
5- if its the same, it proves the cause of the disease was that particular microorg.
What is agar?
a powder made from seaweed used for thickening jam
what is nutrient agar?
agar mixed with meat broth forming a solid nutrient rich medium for culturing pure bacteria.
Edward Jenner was the first to develop a way to induce_______ to a disease without actually getting the disease
What disease did Jenner help prevent by inoculating an 8 yr old boy with fluid from a cowpox blister?
Pasteur made a vaccine by culturing disease=causing microbes and _________(weakened) them by heat
A bacterial culture can double its number of cells every 30 minutes. One bacterial cell placed in nutrient broth leads to the production of _____cells in 1 hour
Improved sewage disposal and clean drinking water helped to prevent outbreaks of many diseases, including
cholera and typhoid fever
One important metod of personal hygiene is
Paul Eherlich, a german physician-chemist, is known as the father of chemotherapy, because he established
what does selective toxicity mean?
drug must kill microbe but not the patient
what was the first medically useful antibiotic ad who discovered it?