anatomical terms of relationships and comparison

  1. superior (cranial)
    • closer to the head
    • Ex: the lungs are superior to the stomach
  2. inferior (caudal)
    • closer to the feet
    • ex: the liver is inferior to the heart
  3. anterior (ventral)
    • closer to the front
    • ex: the trachea is anterior to the esophagus
  4. posterior (dorsal)
    • closer to the back
    • ex: the vertebral column is posterior to the heart
  5. medial
    • closer to the midline
    • ex: the nose is medial to the cheek
  6. lateral
    • farther from the midline
    • ex: the spleen is lateral to the pancreas
  7. intermediate
    • between a more medial and more lateral structure
    • ex: the clavicle is intermediate to the sternum and the shoulders
  8. proximal
    • (pertaining to limbs) closer to the trunk
    • ex: the shoulder is proximal to the elbow
  9. distal
    • (pertaining to the limb) farther from the trunk
    • Ex: the wrist is distal to the elbow
  10. superficial (external)
    • closer to or on the surface
    • ex: the skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles
  11. deep (internal)
    • farther from the surface
    • ex: the bones are deep in the skin
  12. parietal
    • pertaining to the wall of a body cavity
    • ex: the membrane lining the pleural cavity is the parietal pleura
  13. visceral
    • pertaining to an organ
    • ex: the membrane that covers the surface of the lungs i the visceral pleura
  14. ipsilateral
    • on the same side of the body
    • ex: the right lung is ipsilateral to the gallbladder
  15. contralateral
    • on the opposite side of the body
    • ex: the left arm is contralateral to the right leg
Card Set
anatomical terms of relationships and comparison
anatomical terms of relationships of the human body