Dental Pulp Chapter 2

  1. What is orthodentin classified into?
    Orthodentin is classified as primary, secondary and tertiary
  2. What is primary dentin comprised of?
    Regular tubular dentin formed prior to eruption which includes first formed mantle dentin
  3. What is secondary dentin comprised of?
    Regular circumpulpal orthodentin formed (continuous with tubes of primary dentin) at a slower rate throughout the remaining life of the tooth.
  4. What is tertiary dentin compromised of?
    Irregular dentin formed focally in response to noxious stimuli
  5. What noxious stimuli cause tertiary dentin to form?
    Dental caries, tooth wear, cavity preparation, and restorative procedures
  6. Tertiary dentin is also known by these 7 terms, they are:
    • 1. irregular secondary dentin
    • 2. irritation dentin
    • 3. reparative dentin
    • 4. irregular dentin
    • 5. reaction dentin
    • 6. replacement dentin
    • 7. defense dentin
  7. True or false: Barring injury, postmitotic odontoblasts survive for the life of the tooth
  8. The phenotype of odontoblasts is defined by its _______ and its ________
    morphology, polarized secretion
  9. Can odontoblasts be isolated alone?
    No, but immortalized pulp cell lines with odontoblast like cell features have been made
  10. What is the cell rich layer of Hohl derived from? Explain the steps.
    • Before terminal differentiation and during the last cell division of the preodontoblast
    • 1. daughter cell moves close to dental basement membrane
    • 2. inductive signal received by one daughter cell to go to odontoblast
    • 3. the other cells sadly does not and adds to pool of CRLH (cell rich layer of hohl)
  11. Cells in CRLH contribute to the  _______ cell population for ________ cell_________ during ________ __________.
    • 1. progenitor
    • 2. ondontoblast-like
    • 3. differentiation
    • 4. tertiary dentinogenesis
  12. During tertiary dentinogenesis it is required to have _________ activity.
  13. Angiogenic activity is monitored by what factor?
    VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor
  14. Name cytologic features of the odontoblast?
    • 1. basal nucleus with parallel stacks of rough ER
    • 2. prominent Golgi aparatus
    • 3. saccules are more distended on the mature side of the granules
    • 4. terminal web of transverse microfibrils define cell from processes
  15. _____ proposed the concept of ___ levels of secretion from the odontoblast.
    • Linde
    • two
  16. Describe the two levels of secretion.
    • Proximal end secretes matrix of collagen and proteogylcans which reaches the advancing front after 24H
    • Distal level secretes non-collagenous matrix compnents including phosphoproteins, this reaches the front in minutes
  17. Which level by Linde is implicated in the mineralization of predentin and how?
    • Distal level
    • Nucleators for hydroxyapatite crystal formation
  18. What MMPs are responsible for remodeling near the mineralization front?
    2, 9, 20
  19. What are the MMPs involved in?
    • Onset of dentin mineralization
    • regulation of mineralization in mantle dentin
    • processing of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP)
  20. Odontoblasts are similar to what other cells ultrastructural network?
  21. ________ primary curvature of the _______ ________ in the crown is an effect of the ________ of odontoblasts as they move toward the center of the pulp.
    • S-shaped
    • dentinal tubules
    • crowding
  22. Greatest tubular density is nearer ____
    to the pulp
  23. Calcium passes through what are of the odontoblast layer to reach the mineralization front?
    Interodontoblastic space
  24. True or False. High concentrations of calcium are at the proximal secretory pole of the odontoblast?
    False, it is distally secreted. It is a non-collagenous matrix component.
  25. Globules of hydroxyapatite are known as?
  26. Mantle dentin formation involves _____ _____ that secrete ATPase and phosphohydrolytic enzymes.
    Matrix vesicles
  27. What comprises the bulk of circumpulpal dentin?
    Intertubular dentin
  28. Peritubular dentin is more or less mineralized?
  29. Dentinal tubules are tapered structures and vary in diameter from ___mm near the pulp to ___mm near the DEJ.
    2.5, 0.9
  30. Describe sclerotic dentin.
    • Occluded dentinal tubules that appear translucent and are mostly found:
    • apical third
    • crown midway to the pulp
    • outer surface of tooth
    • pulp surface of the dentin
  31. True or False. Dentin deposition is slower in the crown than in the root during primary odontogenesis.
    False, it is slower in the root.
  32. What does TGF stand for?
    Transforming growth factor
  33. Greater amounts of secondary dentin is deposited on the ____ and ____ of the pulp chamber.
    Floor and roof.
  34. Why is primary and secondary dentin formation similar?
    The tubules made in secondary dentinogenesis are continuous with the matrix of primary dentin and therefore are made by the same odontoblast.
  35. What is the range of secondary dentin deposition per day?
    1 to 16 micrometers
  36. Describe reactionary dentin in tertiary dentinogenesis.
    • Produced by postmitotic odontoblasts
    • Milder stimuli
  37. Describe reparative dentin in tertiary dentinogenesis.
    • New generation of odontoblast like cells replacing dead postmitotic odontoblasts
    • Stronger stimuli
  38. EDTA has been shown to solubilize _____ from dentin matrix leading to release of signals need to induce reactionary dentin formation.
  39. What does EDTA stand for?
    ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid
  40. ____ was found to be the most important factor determining the secretion of reactionary dentin.
    RDT or remaining dentinal thickness
  41. Maximum reactionary dentin formation was found with an RDT between?
    between .5 and .25mm
  42. Reactionary dentin secretion is most affected by which restorative material?
    Calcium hydroxide followed by resin, rmgi, and zoe
  43. In deep cavities (RDT less than ___mm), little more than __% odontoblast survival may be seen.
    • .25
    • 50
  44. in shallower cavities odontoblast survival is about __% or greater
  45. Which time interval is associated with the most reactionary dentin secretion when treated with EDTA?
    60 second, followed by 120, and then 0
  46. The _______ response of tertiary dentin will always take place at sites of ______ ______ because of the loss of odontoblasts and the need for ______ _______formation.
    • Reparative
    • pulpal exposure
    • dentin bridge
  47. What is the range of appearance of reparative dentin?
    regular tubular to dysplastic atubular
  48. _______ dentinogenesis is often preceded by secretion of a _____ _______that is atubular and associated with rather _______ cells with poorly developed organelles on its formative surface.
    • Reparative
    • fibrodentin matrix
    • cuboidal
  49. The three critical steps for reparative dentinogenesis are
    • 1. recruitment of progenitor cells
    • 2. signaling of odontoblast-like cell diferentiation
    • 3. subsequent upregulation of matrix secretion by these cells
  50. Isolated pulp cells exhibit similar molecular phenotype to
    Bone marrow stem cells
  51. DPSC stands for
    dental pulp stem cells
  52. SHED stands for
    exfoliated human primary teeth cells
  53. Other than the daughter cells of post mitotic odontoblast what three other cells are responsible for progenitor of reparative dentin
    • perivascular (pericytes) cells
    • undifferentiated mesenchymal cells
    • fibroblasts
  54. What are tunnel defects?
    They exist in dentinal bridge and are multiple perforations cause by imperfections in reparative dentin formation.
  55. What two mineralization-promoting agents can be used to promote development of odontoblast-like cells?
    Dexamethasone and beta-glycerophosphate
  56. Where does calcium build up in the odontoblast during dentin mineralization?
    In the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria but not in secretory vacuoles
  57. What is the circadian rhythm of dentin deposition in primary dentinogenesis attributed to?
    Peripheral adrenergic neurons that produce variations in blood flow to the odontoblasts.
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Dental Pulp Chapter 2
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