Emergency Care in the Streets - Ch21 - Genitourinary and Renal Emergencies

  1. A sudden decrease in filtration through the glomeruli.
    acute renal failure ( ARF)
  2. Triangular paired structures located on top of the kidneys that produce essential hormones to help regulate body processes.
    adrenal glands
  3. The structure in the kidney that supplies blood to the glomerulus.
    afferent arteriole
  4. The presence of air in the venous circulation, which forms a gas bubble that can block the outflow of blood from the right ventricle to the lung; can lead to cardiac arrest, shock, or other life- threatening complications.
    air embolism
  5. One of the two main hormones responsible for adjustments to the final composition of urine, aldosterone increases the rate of active reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions into the blood and decreases reabsorption of potassium.
  6. One of the two main hormones responsible for adjustments to the final composition of urine, ADH causes ducts in the kidney to become more permeable to water.
    antidiuretic hormone ( ADH)
  7. A complete cessation of urine production.
  8. Increased nitrogenous wastes in the blood.
  9. Age- related nonmalignant ( noncancerous) enlargement of the prostate gland.
    benign prostate hypertrophy ( BPH)
  10. Large urinary tubes that branch off the renal pelvis and connect with the renal pyramids to collect the urine draining from the collecting tubules.
    calyces ( singular: calyx)
  11. Progressive and irreversible inadequate kidney function caused by the permanent loss of nephrons.
    chronic renal failure ( CRF)
  12. Part of the internal anatomy of the kidney; the lighter- colored outer region closest to the capsule.
  13. The process by which the body produces either concentrated or diluted urine, depending on the body’s needs.
    countercurrent multiplier
  14. A condition characterized by nausea, vomiting, headache, and confusion, which results when, as a consequence of dialysis, water initially shifts from the blood-stream into the cerebrospinal fluid, mildly increasing intracranial pressure.
    disequilibration syndrome
  15. Connects with the kidney’s collecting tubules.
    distal convoluted tubule ( DCT)
  16. Chemicals that increase urinary output.
  17. The structure in the kidney where blood drains from the glomerulus.
    efferent arteriole
  18. A condition in which the kidneys have lost all ability to function, and toxic waste materials build up in the patient’s blood; occurs after acute or chronic renal failure.
    end-stage renal disease ( ESRD)
  19. An infection that causes inflammation of the epididymis along the posterior border of the testis; a possible complication of male urinary tract infection.
  20. A condition that results from bacteria entering a laceration to the scrotum or perineum, causing infection and subsequent necrosis of the subcutaneal tissue and muscle in the scrotum.
    Fournier gangrene
  21. A double- layered cup with the inner layer infiltrating and surrounding the capillaries of the glomerulus.
    glomerular ( Bowman’s) capsule
  22. The rate at which blood is filtered through the glomeruli.
    glomerular filtration rate ( GFR)
  23. A tuft of capillaries located in the kidney that serves as the main filter of the blood in the kidney.
  24. The presence of blood in the urine.
  25. A cleft where the ureters, renal blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and leave the kidney.
  26. this device is an artificial connection between a vein and an artery, usually in the forearm or upper arm.
    internal shunt Also called an arteriovenous ( AV) fistula,
  27. A chronic inflammation of the interstitial cells surrounding the nephrons.
    interstitial nephritis
  28. A type of acute renal failure characterized by damage in the kidney itself, often caused by immune- mediated diseases, prerenal ARF, toxins, heavy metals, some medications, or some organic compounds.
    intrarenal acute renal failure ( IARF)
  29. A structure formed at the site where the efferent arteriole and distal convoluted tubule meet.
    juxtaglomerular apparatus
  30. Solid, bean- shaped organs housed in the retroperitoneal space that fi lter blood and excrete body wastes in the form of urine.
  31. Solid crystalline masses formed in the kidney, resulting from an excess of insoluble salts or uric acid crystal-lizing in the urine; may become trapped anywhere along the urinary tract.
    kidney stones
  32. The U- shaped portion of the renal tubule that extends from the proximal to the distal convoluted tubule; concentrates the fi ltrate and converts it to urine.
    loop of Henle
  33. Part of the internal anatomy of the kidney; the middle layer.
  34. A spinal refl ex that causes contraction of the bladder’s smooth muscle, producing the urge to void as pres-sure is exerted on the internal urinary sphincter.
    micturition refl ex
  35. The structural and functional units of the kidney that form urine; composed of the glomerulus, the glomerular ( Bow-man’s) capsule, the proximal convoluted tubule, the loop of Henle, and the distal convoluted tubule.
  36. Urine output of less than 500 mL/ day.
  37. A complication of a male urinary tract infection in which one or both testes become infected, enlarged, and tender, caus-ing pain and swelling in the scrotum.
  38. A condition that results when the foreskin is retracted over the glans penis and becomes entrapped; con-striction of the glans causes it to swell even further.
  39. A set of capillaries unique to the kidney that branch off from the efferent arteriole; the site of tubular reabsorption.
    peritubular capillaries
  40. Inability to retract the distal foreskin over the glans penis.
  41. Special cells in the inner membrane of the glomerulus that wrap around the capillaries in the glomerulus, forming fi l-tration slits.
  42. A type of acute renal failure caused by obstruction of urine fl ow from the kidneys, commonly caused by a block-age of the urethra by an enlarged prostate gland, renal calculi, or strictures.
    postrenal ARF
  43. A type of acute renal failure that is caused by hypo-perfusion of the kidneys, resulting from hypovolemia ( hemor-rhage, dehydration), trauma, shock, sepsis, and heart failure ( congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction); often revers-ible if the underlying condition can be found and perfusion restored to the kidney.
    prerenal ARF
  44. A painful, tender, persistent erection of the penis; can result from spinal cord injury, erectile dysfunction drugs, or sickle cell disease.
  45. One of two complex sections of the nephron, the PCT includes an enlargement at the end called the glomerular capsule.
    proximal convoluted tubule ( PCT)
  46. Infl ammation of the kidney linings.
  47. Pain that originates in one area of the body but is perceived as coming from a different area of the body.
    referred pain
  48. Inward extensions of cortical tissue that surround the renal pyramids.
    renal columns
  49. A technique for fi ltering the blood of its toxic wastes, removing excess fl uids, and restoring the normal balance of electrolytes.
    renal dialysis
  50. Dense, fi brous connective tissue that anchors the kid-ney to the abdominal wall.
    renal fascia
  51. Part of the internal anatomy of the kidney; a fl at, funnel- shaped tube fi lling the sinus at the level of the hilus.
    renal pelvis
  52. Parallel cone- shaped bundles of urine- collecting tubules that are located in the medulla of the kidneys.
    renal pyramids
  53. A hormone produced by cells in the juxtaglomerular appara-tus when the blood pressure is low.
  54. Twisting of the testicle on the spermatic cord, from which it is suspended; associated with scrotal pain and swelling, and is a medical emergency.
    testicular torsion
  55. The presence of excessive amounts of urea and other waste products in the blood.
  56. A powdery buildup of uric acid, especially on the skin of the face.
    uremic frost
  57. A pair of thick- walled, hollow tubes that transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
  58. A hollow tubular structure that drains urine from the blad-der, expelling it from the body.
  59. A hollow muscular sac in the midline of the lower abdominal area that stores urine until it is released from the body.
    urinary bladder
  60. The inability to control the release of urine from the bladder; loss of bladder control.
    urinary incontinence
  61. Incomplete emptying of the bladder, or a com-plete lack of ability to empty the bladder.
    urinary retention
  62. Infections, usually of the lower urinary tract ( urethra and bladder), that occur when normal fl ora ( bacteria that naturally populate the skin) enter the ure-thra and multiply.
    urinary tract infections ( UTIs)
  63. Liquid waste products fi ltered out of the body by the urinary system.
  64. A series of peritubular capillaries that surround the loop of Henle, into which water moves after passing through the descending and ascending limbs of the loop of Henle.
    vasa recta
  65. Crampy, aching pain deep within the body, the source of which is usually hard to pinpoint; common with genitouri-nary problems.
    visceral pain
Card Set
Emergency Care in the Streets - Ch21 - Genitourinary and Renal Emergencies