History Semester Two Review People

  1. Philosophes
    A group of social thinkers in France during the enlightenment.
  2. Diderot
    Philosophe who created a large set of Encyclopedias, beginning in 1751.
  3. Montesquieu
    French writer who devoted himself to the study of political liberty, believed in the separation of powers, and wrote On the Spirit of Laws in 1748.
  4. Voltaire
    Philosophe who published over 70 books of political essays, philosophy, and drama, who was jailed for criticizing powerful figures.
  5. Locke
    Positive philosopher who believed that people could learn from experience and improve themselves, and he favored self-government.
  6. Adam Smith
    A professor at the University of Glasgow, Scotland who defended the idea of free economy and published The Wealth of Nations in 1776.
  7. Rousseau
    Philosophe who was committed to individual freedom and wrote The Social Contract in 1762: “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains”.
  8. Louis XVI
    Weak king of France who contributed to a high debt.
  9. Marie Antoinette
    Louis XVI’s wife who was nicknamed “Madame Deficit”.
  10. Robespierre
    Jacobin leader who gained power in 1793, and set out to build a “republic of virtue” by wiping out every trace of France’s past.
  11. Jacobins
    A radical political organization in France.
  12. Napoleon Bonaparte
    French general and emperor in 1804 who established the Napoleonic Code which eliminated many injustices, but limited liberty.
  13. Edmund Cartwright
    Inventor of the water-run power loom in 1787.
  14. James Watt
    Mathematical instrument maker who improved the steam engine in 1765.
  15. Charles Darwin
    English naturalist who challenged the idea of special creation, believed in evolution, and wrote On the Origin of the Species by Natural Selection.
  16. Sigmund Freud
    Austrian physician who believed that the unconscious mind drives how people think and act.
  17. Charles Dickens
    English author at the time of the French Revolution.
  18. Louis Pasteur
    French chemist who developed the germ theory of disease and pasteurization.
  19. Karl Marx
    German journalist who introduced a radical type of socialism called Marxism—the original form of Communism.
  20. Rudyard Kipling
    British author and poet who wrote “White Man’s Burden”.
  21. Francis Ferdinand
    Heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne who was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip on June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo.
  22. Vittorio Orlando
    Representative of Italy at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 (Big Four).
  23. Georges Clemenceau
    French representative at the Paris peace Conference in 1919 (Big Four).
  24. David Lloyd George
    Representative from Great Britain at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 (Big Four).
  25. Woodrow Wilson
    U.S. president during WWI, who wrote a series of peace proposals known as the Fourteen Points, and U.S. representative of the Big Four.
  26. Nicholas II
    Czar of Russia in 1894.
  27. Lenin
    Bolshevik leader who plotted to overthrow the czar with success, and became the Communist leader of the U.S.S.R. after leading a revolution.
  28. Leon Trotsky
    Revolutionary leader in Russia who commanded the Bolshevik Red Army during the civil war.
  29. Jospeh Stalin
    Bolshevik leader in command of the Communist Party who gained power by outmaneuvering Leon Trotsky.
  30. Beinto Mussolini
    Fascist dictator of Italy who promised to rescue Italy by reviving its economy and rebuilding its armed forces.
  31. Adolf Hitler
    Germany’s dictator and leader of the Nazi Party.
  32. Francisco Franco
    Fascist general who led a revolt in Spain.
  33. Hideki Tojo
    Prime minister of Japan during WWII and a general in the Imperial Japanese Army.
  34. Dwight D. Eisenhower
    American general who led Operation Torch, and became president in 1953.
  35. Bernard Montgomery
    British General who defeated the Germans and Italians at the Battle of El Alamein to stop the advance in North Africa.
  36. Erwin Rommel
    Nicknamed “Desert Fox”—German General of the Afrika Korps who was defeated at El Alamein by Bernard Montgomery.
  37. Harry S. Truman
    American president following Roosevelt’s death during the atomic bombing of Hiroshima.
  38. Douglas MacArthur
    Commander of the Allied land forces in the Pacific, who led forces at the Battle of Guadalcanal and developed the strategy of “island-hopping”.
  39. Fidel Castro
    Cuba’s harsh dictator in 1959, who brought social reforms and nationalized the economy.
  40. John F. Kennedy
    American president from 1960 to 1963.
  41. Nikita Krushchev
    Soviet leader who ordered the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.
  42. Mikhail Gorbachev
    General secretary of the Politburo (ruling committee of the Communist Party) who promoted openness and economic restructuring in the U.S.S.R.
  43. Boris Yeltsin
    A member of parliament, the former mayor of Moscow, and the Russian Federations president in 1991.
  44. Vladimir Putin
    Russian Federations president in 1999 after Yeltsin resigned as war raged in Chechnya.
  45. "Mahatma" Gandhi
    “Great Soul”—Indian leader who led a disobedience campaign against the British in 1920 and led the Salt March.
  46. Jawaharlal Nehru
    India’s first prime minister.
  47. Indira Gandhi
    Jawarharlal Nehru’s daughter who was chosen to be prime minister in 1966.
  48. Chiang Kai-shek
    China’s Nationalist forces commander in Southwestern China.
  49. Mao Zedong
    Communist leader in Northwestern China, in control of the Red Army.
  50. Commodore Matthew Perry
    American who took four ships to Tokyo Harbor in 1853 to deliver a treaty to the Japanese so the U.S. could take on supplies in two ports.
  51. Gamal Abdel Nasser
    Egyptian president who fought with Britain, France, and Israel to gain control of the Suez Canal and was successful.
  52. Golda Meir
    Israel’s prime minister.
  53. David Ben-Gurion
    Leader of the Jews residing in Palestine who announced the creation of an independent Israel on May 14, 1948.
  54. Anwar Sadat
    Egyptian president following Nasser, who planned a joint Arab attack on Yom Kipper—the holiest of Jewish holidays—to gain the land of Palestine.
  55. Menachem Begin
    Israeli prime minister who signed the Camp David Accords in 1978 with Jimmy Carter and Anwar Sadat.
  56. Yasir Arafat
    Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).
  57. Ayatollah Khomeini
    Muslim leader in Iran after the shah fled in 1979, who opposed western influences.
  58. Muammar Qadhafi
    Prime minister of Libya in 1969.
  59. Sadam Hussein
    Muslim military leader who governed Iraq as a secular state.
  60. Slobodan Milosevic
    Serbian leader who asserted leadership over Yugoslavia after Josip Tito’s death in 1980, and ordered ethnic cleansing.
  61. Lech Walesa
    Solidarity union leader who became Polish president in 1990 and slowly improved the economy by converting to a free economic system.
Card Set
History Semester Two Review People
History Semester Two Review People