Psych Test 2

  1. Semantic Memory
    Memory for generalized knowledge of the world.

    Generally start sentences with "I know that..."

    Ex. I know that the sky is blue.
  2. Episodic Memory
    Memory for events in one's own past

    Generally start sentences with "I remember when..."

    Ex. I remember when my family went to Washington D.C.
  3. Procedural Memory
    A type of memory containing information about how to do things

    Generally start sentences with "I know how to..."

    Ex. I know how to play the violin
  4. Explicit Memory
    Information retrieved through a conscious effort to remember something

    Ex. Recalled memories
  5. Implicit Memory
    The unintentional recollection and influence of prior experiences

    Ex. Priming
  6. Formal Concepts
    Clearly define objects or events by a set of rules and properties, so that every member of the concept has all of the concept's defining properties and nonmembers do not

    Ex. square: a shape with four equal sides and four right-angle corners
  7. Natural Concepts
    Have a set of typical or characteristic features, and members don't need to have all of them

    • Ex. Home: where your heart is, place you live...
    • Ex. Bird: generally able to fly, wings, beak...
  8. Anchoring Heuristic
    A shortcut in the thought process that involves adding new information to exiting information to reach a judgement

    Start from original decision instead of given information to assist in decision making

    Ex. Only be willing to buy a apartment that costs $300 monthly rent when the only things available are over $1,000
  9. Representativeness Heuristic
    A mental shortcut that involves judging whether something belongs in a given class of the basis of its similarity to other members of its class

    Ex. Wearing glasses means you are smart
  10. Availability Heuristic
    A mental shortcut through which judgments are based on information that is most easily brought to mind

    Ex. Plane equals crash, car equals safe: Really exact opposite, plane crashes seen in news more
  11. Statistical Reliability
    The degree to which test results research evidence occurs repeatedly

    Ex. Someone will get the same results on an IQ test for their entire life
  12. Statistical Validity
    The degree to which test score are interpreted appropriately and used properly

    Ex. IQ test results are very good for measuring how well someone will do in school
  13. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    • 1. Physiological: Food, water, oxygen, sleep
    • 2. Safety: $$, shelter, need to be cared for as a child
    • 3. Belongingness and Love: The need to be part of groups, the need to participate in sexual and nonsexual relationships
    • 4. Esteem: The need to be respected, recognized, or praised for being a useful and honorable individual
    • 5. Self-actualization: Reaching one's full potential, explore and enhance relationships with others; follow interests for intrinsic pleasure rather than for money, status, or esteem; and are concerned with issues affecting all people, not just themselves: Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., Mother Teresa
  14. Jame's Peripheral Theory of Emotion
    Perceived Event-->Physiological & Behavioral Response-->Emotional Response

    Ex. See bear in woods-->Heart begins to beat rapidly-->Feeling of fear
  15. Cannon's Central Theory of Emotion
    Perceived Event==>Both the Physiological & Behavioral Response + Emotional Response

    Physiological & Behavioral Response + Emotional Response occur simultaneously

    Ex. See bear in woods==>Heart begins to beat rapidly and Feeling of Fear
  16. Schacter-Singer Theory of Emotion
    Perceived Event==>Physiological & Behavioral Response + Cognitive Interpretation-->Emotional Response

    Physiological & Behavioral Response + Cognitive Interpretation of event occur simultaneously

    Ex. See bear in woods==>Heart begins to beat rapidly and Brain interprets the event-->Feeling of Fear
  17. Lazarus' Cognitive Appraisal Theory of Emotion
    Perceived Event==>Physiological & Behavioral Response + Cognitive Interpretation + Effect on Personal Well Being-->Emotional Response

    Adds Effect on Personal Well Being to Schacter-Singer Theory

    Ex. See bear in woods==>Heart begins to beat rapidly, Brain interprets the event, and Decide if it will harm you or if it will be good for you-->Feeling of Fear
  18. Piaget's Stages of Development
    • Sensorimotor: Birth-2 years old: infants discover aspects of the world through sensory impressions, motor activities, and coordination of the two
    • Preoperational: 2-4 + 4-7 years old: children cannot yet manipulate and transform informational ways, but they can think in images and symbols
    • Concrete Operational: 7-11 years old: children can understand logical principles that apply to concrete external objects
    • Formal Operational: Over 11 years old: only adolescents and adults can think logically about abstractions, can speculate, and can consider what might be and what ought to be
  19. Erikson's Stages of Development
    • First Year: Trust vs. Mistrust
    • Second Year: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
    • Third-Fifth Year: Initiative vs. Guilt
    • Sixth Year-Puberty: Industry vs. Inferiority
    • Adolescence: Identity vs. Role Confusion
    • Early Adulthood: Intimacy vs. Isolation
    • Middle Age: Generativity vs. Stagnation
    • Old Age: Ego Integrity vs. Despair
  20. Kohlberg's Stages of Development
    • Preconventional:
    • 1. Obeying and avoiding punishment from a superior authority
    • 2. Making a fair exchange or a good deal

    • Conventional:
    • 3. Pleasing others and getting their approval
    • 4. Doing your duty, following rules and social order

    • Postconventional:
    • 5. Respecting rules and laws but recognizing that they may have limits
    • 6. Following universal ethical principles such as justice, reciprocity, equality, and respect for human life and rights
  21. Authoritarian Parents
    Parents who are firm, punitive, and unsympathetic

    Ex. "their way or the highway", totalitarian
  22. Permissive Parents
    Parents who give their children complete freedom and lax discipline

    Ex. mom in Mean Girls
  23. Authoritative Parents
    Parents who reason with their children and are firm but understanding

    Ex. rules can be bent and stretched depending on the situation
  24. Uninvolved Parents
    Parents who invest as little time, and effort in their children as possible

    Ex. "household"
  25. Secure Attachment
    mother is a home base, leaving her side to explore and play but returning to her periodically for comfort or contact
  26. Avoidant Attachment
    the infant ignores the mother when she approaches or when she returns after separation
  27. Ambivalent Attachment
    the infant is upset when the mother leaves, but when she returns the child acts angry and rejects the mother's efforts at contact
  28. Disorganized
    the infant's behavior is inconsistent, disturbed, and disturbing
  29. Catastrophic Event
    sudden, unexpected, potentially life-threatening experiences or traumas

    Ex. 911, earthquakes, fire
  30. Life Change or Strain
    exactly what's on the tin

    Ex. Divorce, illness in the family, moving to a new house
  31. Chronic Stressor
    stressors that continue over a long period of time

    Ex. chronic illness, low income, bad neighborhood (living in tornado alley)
  32. Daily Hassles
    irritations, pressures, and annoyances that may not be major stressors by themselves but whose effects add up to become significant

    Ex. traffic, spilling your coffee, annoying family members
  33. Cognitive Coping Strategies
    thinking of stressors as challenges rather than as threats; avoiding perfectionism
  34. Emotional Coping Strategies
    seeking social support; getting advice
  35. Behavioral Coping Strategies
    implementing a time-management plan; where possible, making life changes to eliminate stressors
  36. Physical Coping Strategies
    progressive relaxation training; exercise; meditaiton
Card Set
Psych Test 2
Memory; Though, Language, and Intelligence; Motivation and Emotion; Human Development; Health, Stress, and Coping