1. What are the three characteristics of Power?
    Political Power: given to a leader of state, president, prime minister, or monarch.

    Physical Power: system or engine is operated, digesting food and water.

    Social Power: impose one's will on others even if they resist. They influence others.
  2. Expert Power, Referent Power and Information Power are what type of power?
    Informal Power, which builds on common goals, fosters good relationships, and can overcome an authority relationship viewed as negative.
  3. What is Dr. Terry's Control Diamond used to examine?
    Any Society, Organization or Group. 

    • Power: who holds it? Can marshal the resources to accomplish a goal. 
    • Culture: what are the dominant and persistent values and assumptions?
    • Institutions: what are the patterns and practices? 
    • Resources: who has access to these?
  4. What is a strategy (Direct or Indirect) based on laws that make discrimination against marginalized groups illegal? 
    There several laws prohibiting discrimination ex. voting, housing, employment, education, religious practices..ect
    Indirect Strategy

    Example: The 19th Ammendment
  5. What is a strategy (Direct or Indirect) gives marginalized groups access to historical advantages enjoyed by empowered groups. 
    This strategy is often described as “leveling the  playing field.”
    Direct Strategy

    Members of empowered groups resent this use of strategy.
  6. Saying, “Personal achievement mostly depends on personal ability. Racism or sexism isn’t prevalent anymore.” is what form of rationalization?
    Minimization: To represent or have the least degree of importance or value.
  7. Saying “This country is just a big melting pot. People of color and women attack White men too.” Reverse discrimination: or is it just plain discrimination? What type of rationalization?
    Redefinition: redefine racism and sexism as a mutual problem.
  8. Define the 3 levels of prejudice.
    Cognitive prejudice: refers to a stereotype that ignores individual differences within a group.

    Emotional prejudice: hostility or liking. Found in attitudes toward members of a particular group based on characteristics of race, ethnicity, national origin or creed. 

    Action-oriented: positive or negative predisposition to engage in a behavior. (not an act).
  9. An act based on prejudice but is not the same as prejudice, which is an attitude or an actual act.
  10. Described as harmful action taken by small dominant-group individuals acting in concert against members of another group, without the direct support of the norms of most social or community contexts.

    (TYPE A, B, C, or D) Type of discrimination.
    Type B: Small-group discrimination
  11. Described as organizationally prescribed or community-prescribed action that by intention has a differential and negative impact on members of another group. 

    (TYPE A, B, C, or D) Type of discrimination.
    Type C: Direct institutionalized discrimination
  12. Institutional Discrimination impacts what 5 entities of society/military?
    • Employment: Hiring practices, Eduction requirements
    • Housing: Steering, Red lining, Zoning
    • Education: Testing, Textbooks, Teacher testing/hiring
    • Military Individual: Recruitment, Retention
    • Military Unit: Readiness, Mission Effectiveness
  13. What are the 7 categories of prejudice and discrimination?
    • Race
    • Sex
    • Religious
    • National Origin 
    • Sexual Orientation 
    • Age
    • Disability
  14. The media’s portrayal of racial and ethnic groups may be a person’s principal source of information. Viewer has little contact with members of that minority, probability of the stereotype becoming the reality to the viewer.
    Social Learning and Conformity, were laws, regulations, and norms of segregation maintain the power of dominant groups.
  15. Under Individual Contributions of Prejudice and Discrimination, which type of contribution are you condoning to when you:

    -Condoning or accepting the status quo.
    -Ignoring acts of discrimination.
    -Refusing to acknowledge one’s own privilege.
    -Believing that you have experienced and fully understand the oppression ofthe target group.
    Inactively Contributiing
  16. "_______________" is central in the mainstream of contemporary American social thought. The tendency is so strong that it is almost undetectable and invisible. However, it is a process that can be altered when it is recognized.
    Blaming the Victim
  17. What are the 4 steps involved with "blaming the victim?"
    • STEP 1: Identify a social problem
    • STEP2: Study those affected by the problem and discover how they are different from the rest of society
    • STEP3Define the differences as the cause of the problem. By taking a very individualized focus, BTV identifies traits
    • STEP4Assign someone to initiate a humanitarian program to correct the impact of the differences.
  18. What step in the 4 step "process of blaming the victim" is being described: Define the differences as the cause of the problem. By taking a very individualized focus, blaming the victim identifies—or even manufactures—traits that differentiate victims from the rest of us (e.g., the poor are poor because they are unfit). 
    • STEP 1: Identify a social problem
    • STEP2: Study those affected by the problem and discover how they are different from the rest of society
    • STEP3: Define the differences as the cause of the problem. By taking a very individualized focus, BTV identifies traits
    • STEP4: Assign someone to initiate a humanitarian program to correct the impact of the differences.
  19. An organized set of doctrines ideas, or principles usually intended to explain the arrangement or working of a systematic whole.

    A self-perpetuating process; it tends to maintain the status quo
    The System
  20. Under Methods to prevent Victimization, which part of the A.P.I.E is explained? 
    -Repeatedly articulate new solutions, elements, and behaviors.
    -Create supportive traditions.
    -Create appropriate heroes and heroines.
    -Influence communication networks both formal and informal (e.g., Facebook, etc.).
    -Recruit new root guards
    -Reward Change agents!!

    See if you need acculturation or hybrid.

    A.P.I.E Model
  21. What are the key terms for Bystander Intervention?
    • Bystander
    • Bystander Effect
    • Diffusion of Responsibility
    • Bystander Intervention
  22. What key term of "Bystander Intervention" is being described: 
    Social phenomenon which tends to occur in groups of people above a certain critical size when responsibility is not explicitly assigned.
    Diffusion of responsibility
  23. Which intervention strategy of strategy in the moment  being described: 
    Surface a concern that is festering, to prevent escalation into harmful conflict.
    Point to the "elephant in the room"
  24. Which intervention strategie of strategy in the moment is being described: 
    Prevent escalation and potential violence. Enable an upset person to take a rational view of the situation.
    Help calm strong feelings
  25. Which intervention strategy of strategy after the fact  is being described: 
    Give clear feedback and express your opinion in a way that allows the inappropriate actor to save face.
    Talk privately with the inappropriate actor.
  26. Any attitude, belief, behavior, or institutional arrangement that favors one race or ethnic group over another.
    An action or attitude, conscious or unconscious, that subordinates an individual or group based on skin color or race.
  27. What form of racism is an unconscious act that, while not usually motivated by prejudice or intent to harm, is still damaging. Prejudice underlies the end result.

    Examples include: Hispanic served last, when his order was in first. Waiter did not notice it.
    Unintentional Racism
  28. What manifestation of racism is being described:
    -Is often obvious to the victim
    -Can be individual or institutional
    -Is more widespread in the United States today than overt racism, but is still very damaging  
    -Includes sabotage and tokenism and is almost always intentional.
    Covert Racism
  29. A tool for domination and social control.
    Sociologically, it is a psychological tool for one group to dominate another.
    Racist behavior
  30. What type of racism factor is described: Internal or External? 

    -A lack of understanding of the history, experiences, values, and perceptions of ethnic groups other than one’s own.
    -Stereotyping the members of an ethnic group without consideration of individual differences within the group.
    -Ethnocentrismjudging other ethnic groups
    -Assigning negative attributes to members
    Internal Factors
  31. What are some forms for combating racism in the military?
    • Awareness
    • Education
    • Participation
    • Legislation
    • Mass Media
    • Change
  32. What are the three subtle forms of racism?
    Aversive, Symbolic, and Modern

    Not so subtle: Traditional
  33. In regard to racism and prejudice, what is Antilocution? 
    Bad mouthing, name calling members of another race.
  34. What type of racism factor is described: Internal or External? 

    Family, peers influence 
    Social visibility
    Mass Media
    Unequal power
    External Factors of being influenced to racism
  35. Under Ideological Process of Blaming the victim, what is the concept known as cultural victim? Just world, "You reap what you sow"
    The belief system itself if the way of looking at the world.
  36. This finds the inherent traits of all people or in a select group of evil people.

    A reason the system is overlooked. 
    Offender Blaming
  37. Under Individual Contributions of  Prejudice and Discrimination, which type of contribution are you condoning to when you:

    -Verbally or physically harrass target groups
    -Tell oppressive jokes
    -Perpetuate stereotypes
    -Avoid out-groups
    -Consider prejudice & discrimination a thing of the past
    Actively Contributing
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