5. control behavior to better understand and explain them
•Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920)
–established first psychology research laboratory
–applied laboratory techniques to study of the mind
Edward Titchener (1867–1927) Wundt’s student, professor at Cornell University
–developed approach called structuralism—involving introspection
and studying basic components of conscious experiences.
on basic sensory and perceptual processes
•William James (1842–1910)
–started psychology at Harvard in 1870s
–opposed Wundt and Titchener’s approach
–his ideas shaped school of functionalism – also influenced by Darwin to focus on how behaviors help us adapt to the environment
–Austrian physician that focused on illness
–psychoanalytic theory of mental disorders
personality theory and form of psychotherapy
that emphasizes the role of unconscious factors in personality and behavior
emphasizes the study of observable behaviors, especially as they pertain to the process of learning
emphasizes each person’s unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction
•Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
–Behaviorism grew out of his work with dogs associating a neutral stimulus with an automatic behavior
John B. Watson
–psychologists should study overt behavior
B. F. Skinner
–American psychologist at Harvard
–studied learning and effect of reinforcement
How do neurons communicate
Through electrical impulses
Name the 3 types of neurons
Name the cell body
In neurons where is information and metabolic function taking place
The cell body (soma)
•Study the physiological mechanisms in the brain and nervous system that organize and control behavior
•Focus may be at various levels
–areas of the brain
–specific functions like eating, emotion, or learning
•View of behavior based on experience treating patients
•Psychoanalytic approach (Sigmund Freud)
–both a method of treatment and a theory of
–behavior reflects combinations of conscious and unconscious influences
–drives and urges within the unconscious
component of mind influence thought and behavior
–early childhood experiences shape
Examples of a __________ would be the use of a “sugar pill” instead of real medication or tonic water instead of an alcoholic beverage. However, the individual must believe that he or she is experiencing the real thing
Describe the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. b) Provide a real-life example that demonstrates the effects of these two systems in humans.
The sympathetic nervous system arouses the body to expend energy. It help us to react in an emergency (fight or flight) by increasing oxygen level to our muscle and brain and dilating our pupils increasing our field of vision so we can react faster. We all at one time or another had that one embarrassing moment in-front of a group where our mouth gets dry and we just want to run away or how when we are scare we automatically jump or run away that's our sympathetic nervous system reaction.
The parasympathetic nervous system calms the body to conserve and maintain energy. Our parasympathetic system allows us to regain composure after excitement.
Behaviorism is to learning theory as Gestalt psychology is to
Prior to becoming the first female president of the APA, Mary Whiton Calkins
C. All of these are true
Whose research on the negative effects of school segregation on African American children was cited by the United States Supreme Court when it overturned the “separate but equal” school doctrine in 1954?
Established structuralism and broke down consciousness into subjective feelings and objective sensations
Father of psychology
established functionalism and studied relationships between experience and behavior
mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment
Consulted with patients to help them discover an insight into their unconscious; developed psychoanalysis
unconscious motives and internal conflicts
established reinforcement; showed that lab animals demonstrated they're capable of learning complex behavior
the field concerned with discovering the basic elements of consciousness
the field concerned with how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment
Wilhelm Wundt established structuralism; he broke down
consciousness into its two basic elements- subjective feelings and objective sensations.
established functionalism; James disagreed with the functionalists and believed that consciousness couldn't be broken down as structuralists believed because it was a continuous stream of consciousness.
Melatonin is manufacture by the
In response to bright morning light
The suprachiasmatic nucleus causes the pinaela gland to decrease the production of melatonin
Melatonin production is suppressed by
exposure to sunlight and bright lights
The rhythmic electrical patterns of the brain are called
Drowsy yet wakeful state is associated with ______brain wave
Rhythmical breathing and slight twitches in arms and legs is what stage of NREM
Stage 2 NREM
Sleepers heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate drop to their lowest levels what is the sleep stage
Stage 4 NREM
What stages are referred to as slow wave sleep
Combination of Stage 3NREM and Stage 4 NREM
Brain activity comprised of delta brain waves is part of what sleep stage
Stage 4 NREM
Sleep walking occurs during what sleep stage
Stage 4 NREM sleep
Late night phone call of which you have no memory most likely occurred during
Stage 4 NREM
Dream usually takes place during
REM sleep is typically accompanied by
Physiological arousal, brain activity, REM
On average each complete cycle through the stage of NREM sleep and REM sleep last about
During a normal night's sleep a person typically experiences about _____ of NREM and REM sleep
central nervous system
Brain and Spinal Cord are parts of what nervous system division? hint: CNS
peripheral nervous system
pinal nerves that extend to the face, arms and legs are part of what nervous system division? hint: PNS
name the nervous system division known for "fight or flight".
the nervous system division known for "rest and digest".
what CNS feature is known to control "vital signs" such as heart-rate and breathing?
name the part of the brain that is responsible for balance and control.
what brain feature allows the left and right hemispheres to "talk" to each other?
which lobe of the brain is associated with executive functions and motor commands?
which lobe of the brain is associated with vision?
which lobe of the brain is associated with hearing, memory, and speech comprehension?
which lobe of the brain integrates vision, touch, and motor information?
what specific cortex of the frontal lobe is associated with voluntary muscle commands?
What condition is described as impaired ability to comprehend speech
What specific cortex of the Temporal lobe is associated with hearing?
What specific cortex of the Parietal lobe is associated with body sensation of touch?
somato sensory cortex
What system of the brain is associated with emotions and memories?
What part of the brain is associated with the body's hormones, and regulates hunger?
What part of the brain acts like a "traffic cop" and routes information to and from the cerebrum and spinal cord.
What part of the limbic system is associated with forming new memories, fear conditioning, and spatial memory?
What part of the limbic system is associated with emotion related to excitement, arousal, fear, and social cues.
What is the name for nervous system cells that are the brain's "communicators"?
Where in a neuron cell body is genetic information stored?
What part of a neuron receives signals from other neurons?
What part of a neuron carries signals to other neurons?
What kind of nervous system cells support neurons by forming the myelin sheath, removing debris, responding to injury, and also form the blood-brain barrier?
What part of a neuron contains synaptic vesicles that hold neurotransmitters?
What is the term for the molecules that neurons use to communicate with each other?
What term applies to the communication transfer arrangement between presynaptic & postsynaptic membranes separated by a gap or cleft?
What term applies to the "Gap" that separates presynaptic & postsynaptic neuron membranes?
Goals of Psychology
to describe, explain, predict, and control behavior/mental process.
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selectionCharles Darwin
Founder of Behaviorism
John B. Watson
B. F. Skinner
behaviorism; pioneer in operant conditioning; behavior is based on an organism's reinforcement history; worked with pigeons
founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; wrote first psychology textbook - The Principles of Psychology1842-1910 How humans and animals use mental processes.
Father of modern psychology, established 1st psychology lab in Leipzip, Germany in 1879. Created introspection.
Student of Wilhelm Wundt; founder of Structuralist school of psychology. Student of Wundt
What is refractory period
The resting period for repolarization
Which part of the neuron receives messages from other cells?--------------------
When the action potential reaches the end of the axon terminals, it causes the release of _____.
A. neurotransmitters that excite or inhibit the next cell
Receiving neurons have special _____ that fit the shape of certain molecules.
a. synaptic vesicles,
c. receptor sites,
c. receptor sites, (Lock and Key)
Which of the following is associated with sleep, mood, and appetite?
What are synaptic Vesicles
They hold all chemical Neural Trensmitter
involves learning to make an involuntary response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex.
A(n) _____ is a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response.
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
A(n) _____ is an involuntary response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus.
unconditioned response (UCR)
Since Pavlov's bell did not normally produce salivation, it was the _____ before any conditioning took place.
neutral stimulus (NS)
The repeated pairing of the NS and the UCS is usually called _____.
In Watson's experiment with "Little Albert," the unconditioned stimulus was _____.
B. the loud noise
unconditioned stimulus is
one that unconditionally, naturally and automatically triggers a response
_____ is the kind of learning that applies to voluntary behavior.
A reinforcer that satisfies a basic need like hunger is called a _____.
_____ is an example of a primary reinforcer, whereas _____ is an example of a secondary reinforcer.
D. A candy bar; a gold star
_____ occurs when a reinforcer is provided for each and every correct response.
What approach might suggest that forgetting to pick his mother up at the airport was Henry's unconscious was of saying that he did not welcome her visit?
What historical event created a demand for clinicians that was far greater that the supply?
World War 2
The tendency to view one's own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways is known as?
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
the potential difference between the two sides of the membrane of a nerve cell when the cell is not conducting an impulse
The brains ability to modify itself after some types of injury or illness
Cerebellum; The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem. It helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance
How a person views himself or herself in terms of gender
Sensory Neurons function ?
Sensory neurons carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times is called ?
Food intake is regulated by the
Excitatory release of what hormone causes contractions
Describe Antagonist Drugs
Poorly fit the receptors and block the NT (Neurotransmitters)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 3.
Love and belongingness
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 4.
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
Neurotransmitters that regulate pain perceptions
•Found in neuromuscular junctions
•Involved in muscle movements
•Involved in learning and memory
uses of Acetylcholine
•Botulin, an extremely lethal substance produced by a bacteria, blocks the release of acetylcholine from motor neurons, causing muscle paralysis.
•Deterioration of memory, reasoning, and
•Symptoms may be due a to loss of ACh neurons
message—increases the likelihood that the
postsynaptic neuron will activate
decreases the likelihood that the
postsynaptic neuron will activate
Types of Neurotransmitters
Cigarettes—nicotine works on
–can artificially stimulate skeletal
muscles, leading to slight trembling movements
Cause of Parkinson's Disease
•Results from loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra
–difficulty starting and stopping voluntary movements
–tremors at rest
•Involved in sleep
•Involved in depression
Prozac works by keeping serotonin in the synapse longer, giving