1. What is interval training?
    Interval training is simply alternating bursts of intense activity with intervals of lighter activity.
  2. What can interval training do for me?
    Whether you're a novice exerciser or you've been exercising for years, interval training can help you jazz up your workout routine. Consider the benefits:
  3. What is Endurance performance?
    Endurance performance is determined by the capacity of the athlete's heart to pump unusually large volumes of blood and oxygen to the muscles. This allows the muscles to achieve higher work rates before they outstrip the available oxygen supply, developing skeletal muscle anaerobiosis (a reduced oxygen content of the cells). Training increases 'cardiovascular fitness', especially by increasing the body's maximum capacity to consume oxygen (VO2 max). This effect results from an increased maximum capacity of the heart to pump blood (the cardiac output) and an enhanced capacity of the muscles to consume oxygen. These adaptations delay the onset of skeletal muscle anaerobiosis during vigorous exercise, thereby reducing blood lactate concentrations in muscle and blood at all exercise intensities above the so-called 'anaerobic threshold' and so allowing the exercising muscles to continue contracting for longer, at higher intensities, before the onset of fatigue. In addition, these changes increase the capacity of the muscles to use fat as a fuel during exercise, thereby enhancing endurance performance.
  4. Benefits of Interval training
    You'll burn more calories. You'll improve your aerobic capacity. You'll keep boredom at bay. You don't need special equipment.
  5. 8 Health Benefits associated with regular participation in physical activity.
    • 1.Low risk early death,
    • 2.low risk stroke,
    • 3.low risk type 2 diabetes,
    • 4.low risk of colon cancer,
    • 5.low risk of breast cancer,
    • 6.prevention weight gain,
    • 7.reduced depression,
    • 8.lower risk heart disease.
  6. How can interval training improve aerobic performance?
    It increases aerobic endurance and anaerobic power. It maximizes aerobic power, especially for athletes training to compete.
  7. List 3 physiological adaptations that occur to improve exercise performance and state how or why improvement occurs
    • Increased maximal blood flow,
    • increased oxygen delivery,
    • carbon dioxide removal. Pg 19 how and why.
  8. Define energy and its food source.
    Energy - the ability to do work. The food source is plants (and animals) because plants absorb energy from the sun.
  9. Define ATP
    Adenosine Triphosphate -compound that releases energy necessary for muscular contraction. 1 mole ATP = energy walk 1/10 mile.
  10. Anaerobic Pathway: ATP-CP system/phosphagen system
    Fuel Source - Chemical source/ creatine Phosphate. Intensity - high intensity exercise/very high. Intensity - high intensity exercise/very high. Duration - 15 seconds - few minutes (very short)
  11. 3 Examples that use Anaerobic pathway
    3 examples that utilize this system - sprinting, jumping, kicking
  12. Anaerobic Pathway: Lactic acid system
    Fuel Source: Glucose (from carbs only). Intensity - high intensity exercise/moderate. Duration - 45 seconds - 60 seconds (short - medium). 3 examples that utilize this system - 400 - 500 meter sprints; 100 - 200 meters swimming; 1000 - 2000 meters cycling
  13. QC2: Aerobic Pathway: Aerobic system
    Fuel Source - carbs, fats, proteins. Intensity - low - moderate. Duration - 40 - 60 minute aerobics, distance running(medium - very long). 3 examples that utilize this system - sitting, sleeping, watching tv
  14. Aerobic
    with oxygen, in the presence of oxygen
  15. Anaerobic
    requiring no oxygen
  16. Abduction
    front or forwards joint action
  17. Adduction
    back or backwards joint action
  18. Steady state
    After the first 3-4 minutes of exercise, oxygen uptake has reached an adequate level to meet the oxygen demand of the tissues.
  19. 1. Decribe the concern involved with exessive hip flexor strengthening and/or tightness.
    They can cause the lumber spine to be misaligned and potentially lead to back problems.
  20. prime mover
    The muscle that causes an action is referred to as the prime mover or agonist (= leader). Often another muscle, called the antagonist (ant = against), relaxes while the prime mover contracts.
  21. Chondromalaciais anterior
    knee pain due to irritation of the cartilage on the under surface of the kneecap
  22. Achilles Tendonitis
    A debilitating foot condition characterized by swelling of the Achilles tendon.
  23. Agonist:
    Prime mover, or the contracting muscle that is responsible for the movement that you see
  24. Acute Injury:
    sudden onset due to a specific trauma, such as twisting the ankle
  25. Antagonist:
    Muscle that works (opposite) to the prime mover and reflexively elongates to allow the agonist to contract and move the joint
  26. Cartilage
    a white, semi-opaque, fibrous connective tissue that cushions the joints and prevents wear on the joint surfaces
  27. Anterior / posterior
    • head and tail or lower half of the body
  28. Chronic Injury:
    excessive, repeated stress is placed on one area of the body over an extended period of time, the affected tissues may begin to fail
  29. Circumduction:
    movement in which an extremity describes a circle (360 degrees)
  30. Extension:
    return from flexion, movement that increases the angle between 2 bones
  31. Flexion:
    joint angle diminishing, most movements are forward movements
  32. Frontal Plane (coronal):
    divides the body into front and back. Abduction and Adduction occur within the frontal plane
  33. Horizontal Plane (transverse)
    divides the body into upper and lower portions. Rotation occurs within the horizontal plane
  34. Joint
    a point at which 2 or more bones meet and where movement occurs
  35. Muscle sTrain:
    overstretching, overexertion, or overuse of soft tissue, less severe than a sprain. May occur from a slight trauma or unaccustomed repeated trauma
  36. Overload Principle:
    increasing the intensity (resistance), frequency, or duration of the training above the levels normally expected
  37. Plantar fasciitis
    is irritation and swelling of the thick tissue on the bottom of the foot.
  38. Rotation:
    movement around an axis or pivot point
  39. Sagittal Plane (medial):
    divides the body into right and left portions. Flexion and extension occur within the sagittal plane
  40. prevent injury Shin Splints
    ice pack, proper footwear and othopedics. Stretch calfs, do heel raises
  41. Prevent injury for Lower Back pain
    proper position, sleep position, eat healthy, exercise
  42. Prevent injury to Vocal Nodules
    Maintaining voice quality requires having the proper environmental setting, breathing, word attack and muscle tension. The instructor who ignores a sore throat and pushes to be heard is beginning a cycle of muscle abuse.
  43. 4 things contributing to heat injuries, cardiovas, or other conditions
    1. form and technique 2. rest 3. footwear/equip 4. frequency of exercise 5. intensity 6. duration
  44. First aid action (RICE)
    R: Rest I: Ice C: Compression E: Elevation (heat only after 48 hrs)
  45. 4 steps in recognizing an emergency
    1. unusual signts, 2. appearanch/behaviors 3. odors 4 noises
  46. FITT principle: Training Variables
    F: Frequency I: Intensity T: Time, T:Type
  47. how does FITT variables affect one another?
    beginners must enjoy the type of exercise to increase their frequency and intensity
  48. Specificity:
    specific adaptions in the metabolic and neuromuscular systems depending on the type of program or exercises that are performed
  49. Specificity of Training Principle (SAID)
    S: Specific, A: Adaptation to I: Imposed D: Demands. Means you get better at things the more you train for them
  50. Sprain:
    usually caused by a severe s tress, stretch or tear of the soft tissues such as ligaments or joint capsules
  51. Tendon
    dense, fibrous connective tissue that forms the end of a muscle and attaches muscle to bone
  52. The Principle of Progression
    implies that there is an optimal level of overload that should be achieved, and an optimal time frame for this overload to occur. Overload should not be increased too slowly or improvement is unlikely. Overload that is increased too rapidly will result in injury or muscle damage. Exercising above the target zone is counterproductive and can be dangerous. For example, the weekend athlete who exercises vigorously only on weekends does not exercise often enough, and so violates the principle of progression.
  53. The Reversibility Principle
    dictates that athletes lose the effects of training when they stop working out. Conversely, it also means that detraining effects can be reversed when they resume training. In short, If you don't use it, you lose it. (1)
  54. Over training Principle
    in itself is fairly simple, not to mention self explanatory. In a nutshell it is training above and beyond your body's ability to adapt positively.
  55. 5 Health Related components: Those factors that are related to how well the systems of your body work
    1. Cardiovascular Fitness: 2. Body Composition: body fat compared to lean body mass (muscle, bone, water,etc) 3. Flexibility: The range of movement possible at various joints. 4. Muscular strength: 5. Muscular endurance
  56. 6 Skill Related Components: Those aspects of fitness which form the basis for successful sportor activity participation.
    1. Speed:2. Agility 3. Balance 4. Coordination 5. reation time 6. Power
  57. Health Benefits vs Enhanced Fitness Benefits (2008 guidelines and 1996 surgeon gen.)
    Adults needs 2.5 hrs (150 min) moderate intensity or 1.25 (75 min) per week vigorous intensity aerobic exercise. Added benefits if increase to 5 hrs (300min) or (75 min) vigorous. Add muscle strenthening.
  58. Which other organization training recommendations does AFAA support?
    IHRSA: Intl health racquet and sportsclub assoc.
  59. BMI and when is Obese?
    Body mass index. When BMI is over 30.
  60. Professional Responsibilities
    Medical history review 2. Risk factor assessment and stratification 3. Prescribed medications 4. Level of physical activity 5. Establish if physician consent is necessary 6. Administer fitness tests and evaluate results 7. Set up exercise prescription 8. Evaluate progress with follow-up test
  61. PAR-Q
    Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire.
  62. PAR-Q: Low Risk
    Low-risk participants include men < 45 yr and women < 55 yr who are asymptomatic and meet no more than one risk factor threshold from table 3.1.

    • PAR-Q: Moderate Risk
    • Moderate-risk participants include men 45 yr and older and women 55 yr and older or people who meet the threshold for two or more risk factors from table 3.1.
  63. PAR-Q: High Risk
    High-risk participants include individuals who have known cardiovascular (e.g., cardiac, peripheral vascular, or cerebrovascular), pulmonary (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases), or metabolic (e.g., type 1 and type 2 diabetes) disease or who show signs or symptoms suggestive of these diseases
  64. 10 Exercise Danger Signs
    1. Nausea or vomiting 2. Dixxiness 3. signs of fatigue 4. tightness in chest 5. staggering or loss of motor control 6. labored breathing 7. allergic reactions 8. blurred vision 9. mental confusion 10 musculoskeletal pain 11 excessive HRT elevation
  65. 6 Signs of Fatigue / Overtraining
    1. lasting fatigue 2. overuse or stress 3. injuries 4. increase resting HRT 5. slower recovery after 6. decrease in strength 7. constant soreness or pain
  66. 6 recommendations to Avoid Overtraining
    1. Vary class type and intensity to alter stresses 2. Limit number of high impact movements 3. Always perform and adequate warmup 4. (with active stretching) and cooldown 5. Correct muscle imbalances 6. Provide alternatives so individuals can increase or decrease intensity as needed
  67. Hydration and rehydration recommendations
    Participants should be advised to hydrate before, during, and after exercise. (8-10 before, 3-4 during,16 oz for every lb. lost)
  68. 8 Health benefits associated with participation in regular physical activity
    Prevention of weight gain, lower risk of stroke, lower risk of high blood pressure, reduced depression, lower risk of breast cancer, lower risk of type 2 diabetes, lower risk of coronary heart disease, weight loss
  69. How can interval training improve aerobic performance?
    This repetitive form of training leads to the adaptation response. The body begins to build new capillaries, and is better able to take in and deliver oxygen to the working muscles. Muscles develop a higher tolerance to the build-up of lactate, and the heart muscle is strengthened. These changes result in improved performance particularly within the cardiovascular system
  70. 3 physiological adaptations that occur to improve exercise performance and state how or why improvement occurs
    1) Increased blood flow - exercise forces the left ventricle to pump larger volumes of blood. Heart pumps more blood per beat. 2) Increased oxygen delivery and carbon monoxide removal - 3) Increased maximal oxygen uptake and aerobic power -
  71. Define energy and its food source
    Energy is the ability to do work. Our main source of energy is the SUN!
  72. Define ATP
    ATP = Adenosine triphosphate. Intracellular carrier of chemical energy produced by the body for muscle work.
  73. ATP-CP system/phosphagen system (Anaerobic Pathway)
    1) fuel source = chemical 2) Intensity = high 3) Duration = 1-5 Seconds
  74. 3 Examples of ATP-CP system/phosphagen system
    1. Power lifting 2. 100 & 200 meter running sprints. 3. Shot put & discus
  75. Lactic Acid System (Anaerobic Pathway)
    1) Fuel source = glucose - the usable form of carbohydrate in our body 2) Intensity = High 3) Duration = 45-90 Seconds
  76. 3 examples of activities that utilize the lactic acid system
    1. basketball. 2. volleyball 3. prolonged sprints
  77. Aerobic System (Aerobic Pathway)
    1) Fuel Source = Carbs, fats, protiens 2) Intensity = Low-moderate 3) Duration = atleast 10-15 minutes
  78. 3 Examples of activities that utilize the aerobic system
    sleeping. Walking. Low intensity, long duration physical activity.
  79. Aerobic
    With oxygen, or in the presence of oxygen
  80. Anaerobic
    Requiring no oxygen; usually short spurt high energy activities
  81. Steady State
    After 3-4 min of exercise, oxygen uptake has reached an adequate level ;to meet the oxygen demand of the tissues; heart rate, cardiac output and pulmonary ventilation have attained fairly consistent levels.
  82. Excess post-oxygen consumption (EPOC)
    traditionally known as oxygen debt, refers to oxygen uptake remaining elevated above resting levels for several minutes during exercise recovery.
  83. Oxygen deficit
    A period in which the level of oxygen consumption is below what is necessary to supply appropriate ATP production required of any exercise.
  84. Anaerobic threshold
    the point at which the body can no longer meet its demand for oxygen and anaerobic metabolism is accelerated
  85. Aerobic capacity
    the ability of the body to remove oxygen from the air and transfer it through the lungs and blood to the working muscles; related to cardiorespiratory endurance.
  86. Lactic Acid
    the by-product of anaerobic metabolism of glucose or glycogen in muscle
  87. Aerobic. vs Anaerobic
    aerobic: 1. Complete breakdown of glucose 2. Can utilize carbs, fats, or protiens as fuel -3.Long-duration activity 4. smaller EPOC 5. Submaximal work (mod. Intensity) 6. CO2 and H2o are end products 7. use Oxygen in chemical breakdown
  88. Anaerobic vs Aerobic
    anaerobic: 1. Partial breakdown of glucose 2. Can only use carbs as fuel 3. Short-duration activity 4. greater EPOC 5. maximal output (high intensity) 6. lactic acid is by-product 7. doesn't need O2 in chemical breakdown
  89. Stroke Volume
    the volume of blood ejected by each ventricle of the heart during a single stroke
  90. Cardiac Output
    the volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute
  91. Venous return
    the "pumping action" of the muscles in the extremities and respiratory system along with venoconstriction to move oxygen-poor blood back to the heart
  92. Blood-pooling
    a condition caused by ceasing vigorous exercise too quickly so that blood remains in the extremities and may not be delivered quickly enough to the heart and brain
  93. Vital capacity
    the greatest volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after the deepest inspiration
  94. Blood Pressure Norm
  95. Joint 
    The point at which two or more bones meet or articulate and where movement occurs
  96. Valsalva maneuver
    a dangerous condition that can occur if an individual holds his/her breath causing the glottis to close and stomach muscles to contract, forming an unequal pressure in the chest cavity, reduced blood flow to the heart and insufficient oxygen to the brain. Dizziness and temporary loss of consciousnes may occur.
  97. Ligament
    bands or sheet-like fibrous tissue that connect bones to bone and reinforce joints from dislocation; they are nonelastic and have limited ROM.
  98. Tendon
    Band of dense fibrous tissue forming the termination of a muscle and attaching muscle to the bone with a minimum of elasticity
  99. Medial / Lateral
    toward the midline / away from the midline
  100. Cartilage
    • White, semi-opaque fibrous connective tissue; cushions and prevents wear on articular surfaces
  101. Anterior / Posterior
    Front / Back
  102. Adduction
      Movement toward the midline of the body
  103. Supine / Prone
    Lying face up / lying face down
  104. Superior / Inferior
    upper half / lower half
  105. Unilateral / bilateral 
    affects one side of the body / affects both sides of the body
  106. Rotation
    • Movement around an axis
  107. Extension
    Increasing the angle between 2 bones; the straightening of a muscle previously in flexion
  108. Anatomical planes that divide the body
    1) Horizontal (transverse) = top/bottom 2) Sagittal - Sides or left/right 3) Frontal - Front/back
  109. Flexion
    decreases the angle between 2 bones
  110. Abduction
    Movement away from the midline of the body
  111. Circumduction
    movement in which the extremity describes a 360 degree circle
  112. Agonist
    A prime mover; directly responsible for a particular action
  113. Antagonist
    acts in opposition to the action produced by a prime mover
  114. Primary Movers
    The muscles performing the work
  115. Assistors
    muscles that help perform the work
  116. Stabilizers
    help prevent undesired or unnecessary motions
  117. Isometric
    a muscle contraction in which the tension remains constant as the muscle shortens or lengthens Example - Planks
  118. Concentric
    muscle shortens as positive work is done against gravity. Example: Bicep curl
  119. Eccentric
    muscle lengthens while contracting, developing tension as when the muscles oppose the force of gravity
  120. Isotonic
    tension remains constant as the muscle shortens or lengthens. Example. Sit ups
  121. Isokinetic
    contractions in which the tension developed by the muscle while shortening at constant speed is maximal over the full ROM. Example - Arm stroke while swimming
  122. 3 muscle contractions used in Group Exercise setting
    1) Concentric 2) Eccentric 3) Isometric
  123. Slow twitch muscle fibers 
    designed for prolonged submaximal aerobic activities and are slow to fatigue Example - long term low-moderate intensity such as long distance running
  124. Fast twitch muscle fibers
    • able to generate quick, high intensity contractions but are more easily fatigued Example - short spurt activities such as sprinting
  125. Benefits of weight bearing activities
    Increases bone density
  126. Benefits of increased muscle strength
    increases both physical appearance & physical performance
  127. Benefits of increased muscular flexibility
    improves tissue elasticity and helps to facilitate movement
  128. 3 postural deviations of the back
    1) Scoliosis 2) Kyphosis 3) Lordosis
  129. 6 classes of nutrients
    1) water 2) carbs 3. protein 4. fat 5. vitamins 6. minerals
  130. Different types of carbs
    Simple - sugars, are primarily found in fruits, vegetables, milk, and milk products Complex - glucose molecules linked together as polysaccharides, or many sugar units found in grains, legumes and veggies such as potatoes
  131. What are minerals?
    Inorganic compounds that assist processes such as regulating activity of enzymes and maintaining acid base balance and are structural components of body tissue
  132. Water soluble vitamins
    are excreted by the kidneys, not likely to be toxic, Water-soluble vitamins are those that dissolve in water upon entering the body
  133. What are vitamins?
    Non-caloric organic compounds needed in small quantities to assist in such functions as growth, maintenance and repair
  134. Fat Soluble vitamins
    are stored in the liver and can be toxic with over dosing
  135. 8 Dietary Guidlines outlined by the U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Dept of Agriculture
    1. limit food with saturated and transfats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol 2. limit calories and increase physical activity. 3. regular physical activity 4. fruits and vegtables (choose from 4 veg. subgroups) 5. consume 3 cups/day of milk / milk products 6. less than 10% calories from fatty acids and less than 300 mg/day cholesterol 7. 3 or more ounces of whole grain 8.physical fitness by including cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercises
  136. Describe MyPyramid and how participants may benefit from this resource
    MyPyramid offers personalized eating plans and interactive tools to help you plan/ assess your food choices based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. It will help to give participants a better understanding of what they should be eating and how much physical activity they need to maintain a healthy lifestyle.
  137. Flexibility Training: Training that focuses on:
    muscle suppleness, joint mobility, decrease muscle tension
  138. Flexibility Training:
    Improve joint mobility, Enhance physical performance, Decrease injury
  139. Flexibility Training:3 common methods
    Static, Dynamic, PNF (Proprioceptive Nueromuscular Facilitation)
  140. Flexibility Training:
    Placing target muscles in a position of elongation and holding
  141. Flexibility Training:
    Stretching with movement through full ROM
  142. What are the four special considerations of flexibility training?
    Intensity speed and control, ROM, Body temp
  143. Flexibility Training: define PNF method
    • Proprioceptive Nueromuscular Facilitation -Active contraction prior to stretch- not used assistance needed
  144. Final Class Segment: 5-10 min Closure to the workout
    promote mind/body awareness, facilitate relaxation response
  145. What are the three relaxation methods to final segment? Physical
    mental, combo
  146. What are the three special considerations for final segment HR monitoring
    Hot tubs / saunas, method selection
  147. How does increased cardio fitness affect resting HR?
    It decreases it.
  148. How do cardiac medications affect exercise response?
    May be unable to accurately monitor HR
  149. Music & Choreography:
    8 beats per measure
  150. Explain: Musial Phrase
    4 measures = Musical Phrase
  151. Define: Rhythm
    Measured motion
  152. Aerobic Choreography: examples Low Impact aerobics (LIA)
    march, step touch, squat, plie
  153. Aerobic Choreography: high impact
    jog, jump, hop, jack, twist, splits, pendulum
  154. Aerobic Choreography: define LIA. How is it different?
    One foot is always on or near the floor
  155. Aerobic Choreography: define MIA
    Both feet on the floor rolling through a toe-ball-heel motion every time
  156. Aerobic Choreography: define HIA
    Both feet leaving the floor alternately or at the same time
  157. What are the two categories of joints?
    Nonsynovial, synovial
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