1. How does Marx precieve "social inequality"

    Class consciousness:

    False consciousness:
    Marx believes that the major social division in a capitalist society is that between those who own the means of production and those who don't

    Class consciousness: sometimes, workers may not be aware of their own class position or interests

    Falso consciousness: members of one class who think they have common intrests with members of another class
  2. How does Weber precieve "social inequlaity":
    what really matters is not simply the ownership of property but the actual control of property--power over property.

    a group's social status depends not only upon how much wealth it possess, but also people's perception of their "moral worth" or "character"--prestige.
  3. how did Davis and Moore precieve "social inequality":

    irreplaceability principal:
    they clarified that they are talking about the stratification of positions, not persons who occupy those positions.

    argued positions in a society vary in terms of how pleasant they are, how important they are in a society's survival, and how much training they need.

    irreplaceability principal: Positions that are unpleasant, important to society, and need a great deal of training will receive higher reward than the other positions.
  4. How did Marx use the "means of production" to define classes:
    means of production: everything, besides human labor that goes into producing wealth (land, machines, tools)

    • one class, borgeoisie, owns the means
    • next class, does not own any means and must sell their labor to the borgeosise
  5. groups of people who share a similar position inthe stratifiation system
  6. theories built on the propostion that persons who experience status inconsistency will be frustrated and will therefore support politcial movments aimed at changing the stratification system:
    status inconsistency theories
  7. Why did Ralf Dahrendorf disagree with Marx:
    communist societies have one class only in the limited sense expressed by Marx, but Marx did not say that everyone would have equal power or equal prestige; does not follow that people of a communist society would be equal economically

    Dahrendorft asks: who is the state? It it really all of the people? or is it really controlled by political specialists?
  8. How is the poverty line determined? 

    On average in the last few decades, what percentage of Americans lived below the poverty line at one point in time each year?
     "minimum food cost" x 3. For minimum food cost, experts determine how many nutrients a person needs for physical survival and then find the best buys in stores to provide for those nutrients.

    roughly 10-13 percent of Americans live under the poverty line. That is, about 30 million Americans, at one point in time in a year,
  9. How is "absolute poverty" different from "relative poverty"?
    absolute poverty: It is supposed to be an objective standard, regardless of how much other people earn; can tell us more about how many people are having a real hard time.

    relative poverty:Here, you are poor or not by comparing your income with other people's income; can tell us more about how unequal a society is in terms of income distribution.
  10. How is "income" different than "wealth" as a measurement of economic inequality?
    income: refers to weekly wages and monthly salaries, plus some governmental cash assistance

    wealth: however, would refer to savings in the values of your house, cars, famous art works, bank savings, stock market investments, etc.

    Two people with the same income may have different wealth.
  11. What does the politics of replaceability mean?
    It is arguable that a profession or an occupation, once it arises, often tries to monopolize that occupation or profession through its certification or licensing powers.

  12. What are structural versus exchange mobility?
    structural mobilitiy: mobility that occurs becuase of changes in the relative distribution of upper and lower statuses in a socitey; due to the expansion of higher status occupations;does not tell us about whether opportunities for upward social mobility are equally open to everyone: when more good jobs are available, somebody has to fill them.

    change mobility: mobility that occurs becuase some people fall, thereby making room for others to rise in the stratification system; can tell us about how open a society is: when few good jobs are available, then are they still open to everyone?
  13. What does "cultural capital" mean?
    assets based on knowledge, style, speech, tasts, and the like, which can be used to "purchase" privileges and power

    symbolic (not material) signals that people can employ for social exclusion and for their own effort to climb the social ladder.
  14. Blau and Duncan: Status Attainment Model

    A. t question does each study want to address? (Some may have more than one, but choose one question for which the textbook provided a clear answer.)

    What is or are the answers each study gives?

    What does each researcher find in her study that warrants the answers she gives?
    questions: How do people attain their statuses? ; how people acuqire status with/without being mobile

    answers: fathers with high status jobs increased son's chance of high status job

    warrents the answers: likely to recive more years of education
  15. Yinon Cohen and Andrea Tyree study (pp. 272): especially, what is a new finding in their study?

    What question does each study want to address? (Some may have more than one, but choose one question for which the textbook provided a clear answer.)

    What is or are the answers each study gives?

    What does each researcher find in her study that warrants the answers she gives?
    answers: education has greater importnace for status attainment for people from poor homes than it does for others

    new findings: marital status is the main determinant of family income, regardless of a person's background

    question: what are the status attainment of family members as they leave home and find their place in the occupational structure
  16. Biblarz, Raftery, and Bucur study: Mothers and mobility

    What question does each study want to address? (Some may have more than one, but choose one question for which the textbook provided a clear answer.)

    What is or are the answers each study gives?

    What does each researcher find in her study that warrants the answers she gives?
    question: whether gender was a signigicant factor (homes without a male role model) or whether the real effect was simply due to having only one parent as compared to two.

    answers: children reared in two parent homes do better than those in one parent homes of either gender;  children raised in mother only homes have higher attainment status than those in father only homes

    warrent answers: survey including chilren of father only families to permit comparisons
  17. Michael Hout: Trends in Status Attainment

    What question does each study want to address? (Some may have more than one, but choose one question for which the textbook provided a clear answer.)

    What is or are the answers each study gives?

    What does each researcher find in her study that warrants the answers she gives?
    question: a decline in structural  mobility woulld reduce the amount of exchange mobility, as well; reversing the trend of a open and democratic stratification system

    answers: while structrual mobility has been declining, there has been a corresponding increase in exchange mobility so that the overall amount of mobility has remained the same

    warrent: as proportion of american with college edcuations increase, fairness in the stratification system increases
  18. Bonnie Erickson: Networks and Power in Canada

    What question does each study want to address? (Some may have more than one, but choose one question for which the textbook provided a clear answer.)

    What is or are the answers each study gives?

    What does each researcher find in her study that warrants the answers she gives?
    questions:  the cultural advantage of the upper classes is not merely possession of a different culture, but of MORE culture (soap opera vs opera); cultural varibility

    answers: the higher the class the greater the diversity of their network; upper class repsondents scored higher on knowledge of art, books, business magazine,  but higher on sports and mass magazines as well; power is the result of "social network diversity"
  19. Give facts to demonstrate that underneath the skin or physical looks we are genetically almost identical:
    • 1. Humans are identical in genetic make up; variations lie among individuals, not groups
    • 2. tiny amount of genetic variation among groups lie between nationalities (geography or ancestry)
    • 3. complex diseases or preformance capabilites are not an inhertited bundle
  20. If "race" is not real biologically, why do sociologists still study "race"?
    • Sociologists study race, not because one's physical looks matter biologically, but because it has social consequences
    • the racial classification itself which many take as a biological fact, we argue, is socially constructed
  21.  What does "ethnicity" mean?
    • a cultural concept.
    • An ethnic group refers to a group whose members, rightly or wrongly, believe that they share the same cultural heritage.
    • ethnicity captures people's sense of belonging in terms of their group membership
  22. How do sociologists define "minority"?
    we sociologists do not define "minority" in terms of numbers. We define "minority" in terms of power.
  23. What does "middle-man minority" mean?
    • racial or ethnic groups restricted to a limited range of occupations in the middle, rather than the lower, level of the stratification system
    • role as intermediaries in economic activities.
    • They perform economic activities that are often underserved by the dominant group but needed by the subordinate group.
  24. What does "cultural pluralism" mean?
    the existance of diverse cultures within the same society
  25. How is prejudice different from discrimination?
    • Prejuice
    • negative or hostile attitudes toward and beliefs about a group; a negative feeling toward a target group (antipathy) and a poorly founded belief about members of the target group (a stereotype).

    • discrimination
    • actions taken against a group to deny its members rights and privileges avaiable to others; defined as unequal treatment of a racial/ethnic group.
  26. What is the Bogardus Social Distance Scale?
    a survey which taps into people's feelings about other racial/ethnic groups

    asks:Give your reactions to each ethnic group in terms of the chief pictures you have of the entire group, not the best or the worst representative of the group.

    about: marriage, close friends, neighbores, work with, speak aquatenancies, visit the country, not allowed in country
  27. What is "authoritarian personality"?

    What is its relationship with racial prejudice according to psychological studies?
    authoritarian personality: aruged that some people are in effect oversoicalized so that they accept the norms and values of only their own group and reject variations

    psych studes: when confronted with other norms/values people become anxious; prejeuice becomes a defense mechanism against having to question one's own cultural hertiage
  28. What are the three factors Gordon Allport uses to predict prejudicial attitudes?
    • lack of contact
    • status inequality
    • competition for unskilled jobs (work relations)
  29. What are the five possible inter-group relations?
    • assimilation: a given ethinc culture group would surrender its distinctive cultural features and dissappear into the dominant american culture
    • accommodation: noticeable differences become unimportant
    • extermination:
    • expulsion:
    • segreation: a group is inhibited from having contact with others
  30. What does Sherif's study teach us?
    if such hostilites can be produced in a few days among young boys of similar backgrounds with longstanding friendships, then its is any wonder that antagonsim arise so easily in the  real world between groups of strangers who are separated by truly noticeable differences and different expericences
  31. According to Edna Bonacich, what is most often the cause of racial prejudice?

    What are the four factors she identified that make minorities work for lower wages?
    prejudice and discrimination often arise out of the conflicts between these dual labor markets (better paid native, organized labor vs. poorly paid immigrant workers)

    • very low standard of living
    • lack of information
    • lack of political power
    • economic motives ( intend to be temp. workers, so they acccept low wages poor working conditions)
  32. How does the US Census Bureau determine the degree to which a place is racially segregated or not?
    Dissimilarity index
  33. Who is the largest ethnic minority group in the United States today?
  34. What is enclave economy?

    According to your book, what is it good for?
    theory that proposes that the spatial concentration of an ethnic group premits it to create its own business enterprises, thus speedin the economic progress of the group

    advantages: incresasingly sucessfull entrepreneurs within the ethnic community; forces these businesses to give their workers a better deal than would employers from outside the enclave
  35. What is the difference between the concept of "gender" and the concept of "sex"?
    gender: refers to the roles, the social expectations regarding how a male or a female (or a person of some alternative sexual orientations) is supposed to behave.; masculinity or femininity

    sex: refers to biological differences; male or female
  36. How does the biological perspective explain gender differences?
    • contribute significantly to and set limits to gender differences.
    • the higher the level of male sex hormones in the mother's blood in the second trimester of pregnancy (when hormones cause sexual differentiation), the more masculine was the gendered behavior of their daughters 27 to 30 years later.
    • hormone levels accounted for about one-fourth of the variation in gendered behavior; social and cultural influences could have accounted for most of the other three-fourths.
  37. How does the socialization concept explain gender differences?

    Who are the agents of gender socialization?
    • social and cultural influences on gender
    • young children and teens learn the social norms of being masculine and feminine

    who: parents
  38. How does the "structural perspective" explain gender differences?
    • gender roles and gendered personalities are the result of gender power relations, especially in workplace arrangements.
    • gender roles and gendered personalities are the result of gender power relations, especially in workplace arrangements.
  39. What does "doing gender" mean?
    • Often, a man may fake clumsiness when changing a baby's diaper and a female may fake incompetence in operating a certain machine. In other words, they might be performing, or doing gender.
    • The core of this "doing gender" perspective is that gender roles and gendered social structure can exist or persist only when we allow it to do so.
  40. What is sex ratio?

    What is the kind of gender relation that sex ratio theory wants to explain?
    the # of person's of one gender relative to the # of person's of the other gender, unusually expressed as the # of males per 100 females

    Sex ratio theory tries to explain the changes in the gender power relation..
  41. What is dyadic power?
    mate selection power: who has more choices to choose a mate; the capacity of each member to improve his or her will on the other member
  42. What is structural power?
    social, political, and economic power; power based on statuses within social structures
  43. What is the relationship between sex ratio and dyadic power and structural power?
    The theory argues that changes in these two types of power can be predicted by looking at the sex ratio of a group, a community, or a society.
  44. Where did Marcia Guttentag come up with this "strange" theory? sex ratio theory
    opera performance of mozats "the magic flute"
  45. This chapter has a lot of tables and pictures. Study them and figure out what those tables and figures and pictures are trying to illustrate. Yes, you need to know all of them because I may use some of them as examples for you to analyze using the sex ratio theory.
  46. What, then, can make sex ratio change?
    • periods of rapid/large scale migration or immigration
    • female infanticde (kill female infants)
    • health and diet
    • differential life expectancy
    • war
    • sexual practices (orthodox jews)
  47. According to Stark's interpretation of sex ratio theory, today, men enjoy both structural and dyadic power. How can that be?

    How did Stark illustrate his point?
  48. See how Stark applies sex ratio theory to the study of African American communities:
    • reflects more women and fewer men
    • sex ratio is nearly even at birth
    • male infant mortality rate
    • high moretality rate of men from accidnets, drugs, violence
    • one parent African american families
    • more sexual activity among people who are not married
  49. See how Stark applies sex ratio theory to the study of Hispanic communities.
    • reflects more men than women
    • differential immigration (more men come than women)
    • low infant mortality rates
    • male headed families
  50. What is the difference between "women's movement" and "feminist movement," according to your book?
    • womens movement
    • an effort to end subordination of women
    • general social reform
    • rise to the suffragist movement: right to vote for women

    • feminist movement
    • involvment of men and women in fashioning new relationships
    • opposition to stratification based on gender
    • biology does not consing females to inferior status
  51. Why does the gender gap in earnings still exist:
    • service sector jobs; stereotyped as women's; lower income
    • career lines intrruped by family responsibilities (meetings at school, ect. )
    • discrimination - assumptions that they have applied for the stereotypical women's job
    • "comparable worth" - changes from a traditionally male dominated profession into a female dominated profession, and see if the compensation changes
  52. What does the "second shift" mean?
    women today are expected to be both breadwinners and homemakers
  53. How does Rodney Stark define religion
    beliefs and practices that (1) concerns ultimate meanings and, (2), presumes the existence of a supernatural being.
  54. how does Durkheim define religion:
    all religious beliefs and practices seem to work on the separation of two realms in everyday life and behavior: the sacred versus the profane. The "sacred" are revered and are objects of worship; the profane are worldly objects and events.
  55. What are the four aspects of "religiosity"?
    • Belief: for example, do you believe there is life after death?
    • Practice: for example, how often do you attend religious services (e.g., mass or Sunday morning services)? How often do you read the Bible at home?
    • Experience: for example, have you ever felt that you have been saved or punished by God?
    • Knowledge: you can give a person a set of famous sentences from the Bible to see if the person can recognize it
  56. How did Durkheim (Course Notes), each see the function of religion in society? What kind of empirical evidence would they give to support their arguments?
    • Groups need to use regular rituals and ceremonies as "collective representations" to remind their members of their social cohesion and social existence.
    • then when faith and societal values conflict, society would win which means faith would be reinterpreted if not forgotten. So, "Thou shalt not kill" would be conditional, depending on whether a war is deemed just or not
  57. How did Weber (Course Notes), and each see the function of religion in society? What kind of empirical evidence would they give to support their arguments?
  58. How did Marx (Course notes, and partly, church-sect theory) each see the function of religion in society? What kind of empirical evidence would they give to support their arguments?
    by soothing the troubled souls, teaches the proletariats' to tolerate, if not to embrace, their worldly sufferings.
  59. What is church-sect theory? More specifically,

    1) What question is it trying to address?
    2) How the church-sect theory explain the preponderance of religious denominations in the United States? What is the difference between church, sect, and cult?
    • 1).  Why does America have so many denominations?
    • 2).  as a religious organization becomes increasingly established, it tends to draw members from the upper class and focus on lives in this world--this is called the "secularization" process. However, this process will alienate the lower social class that prefers non-secular elements. As a result, new religious organizations would emerge to capture these disaffected folks by focusing onother worldly messages. This latter process is called the "revival" process.

    • church: Inspired word of God, but written by men. God is more distant and intellectual.
    • sect: Actual word of God (Biblical Inerrancy/Literalists). God is directly involved in our lives
    • cult: Outside mainstream
  60. What is the religious economy theory?
    in cities that include serveral religions people could compare religions, worry about which one was best, and regard religion as a matter of choice
  61. Are women really more "religious" than men? Look at Table 14-2 closely. See what they mean by "religious." See what conclusions Stark gives. Note, the answer is not a simple one.
    • more religious: yes, more likely to hold religous beliefs, and engage in religous behavior
    • mean by religious:
    • stark's conclusions: personality; men more apt to femininity where more religous, women apt to masculinity where less religous
  62. Why do we study social movements?
    address the degree to which people are able to shape history
  63. What constitutes a social movement in sociology?
    • organized activity to cause or prevent social change
    • self-consciously organized activity. 
    • not spontaneous eruptions of events
  64. What are the four types of social movements discussed in the Course Notes:
    • alterative movements: only strive to change certain behaviors of an individual (for example, women's temperance movement, Alcoholics Anonymous, Just say no movement)
    • redemptive movements: want to change the whole person
    • reformative movements: seek to transform only certain parts of the system – working within the system (like Civil Rights movement, Anti-abortion movements, environmental movements, animal rights movement)
    • revolutionary movements: prefer replacing the total system with a new one (Communist movement – the Weather Underground for example, the black-power movement of the 1960s, right-wing militias)
  65. How is the collective behavior approach different from the resource mobilization approach in understanding how social movement works? How did Stark reconcile their differences?
    To summarize, essentially the collective behavior approach understands social movements as grass root, bottom up collective behaviors. It focuses on the emotional, spontaneous aspects of a social movement. In contrast, the resource mobilization theory understands social movements as carefully crafted, elite engineered rational behaviors. It focuses on the mobilization of human and material resources (including pre-existing social networks), alliance building, media spinning, and the give-and-take collective bargaining within social movements. Stark wanted to use the collective behavior approach to explain the start of a social movement and to use the resource mobilization approach to explain the success or failure of a social movement.
  66. What is the so-called "J-curve" theory? What does it try to explain? What is the "revolution of rising expectations"?
    the theory predicts that social movements are more likely to occur not when miseries are becoming unbearable, but when actual conditions are getting better and yet still falling short of people's expectations (revolution of expectations).

    The discrepancy between culturally defined goals and institutionally available means may cause some to resort to criminal behaviors at the individual level, and it may prompt social movements at the societal level.
  67. Who are more likely to join social movements?
    • those who sympathize with the movement goals and strategies.
    • the participants tend to be the people who are the most disgruntled about the conditions that the movement is trying to address
    • person's interpersonal connections (social networks) and prior activities in social movement.
  68. What does "biographical availability" mean?
    people who are free from commitments and invlovements that would interfere with their participationg in a social movement

    College students, arguably, have more free time on their hands than full-time employees; moreover, they are more likely to be single with little family obligation. But let me add as well that students from Ivy League universities not only did not have to work during the summer, but they also tend to come from families of middle-class backgrounds that early on build on a sense of self-entitlement to the world--this is MY world and I CAN make a change. Remember
  69. What is your textbook's definition of "family" (p. 361) and what is the Census Bureau's definition of "family"?
    • textbook: a small kinship-structured group with the key function of nurturant socialization of the newborn
    • census bureau: two or more people related by birth, marriage or adoption living in the same housing unit
  70. We discussed whether the American family is really in decline or safe and sound. We noted that both may be true depending on our notion of what family means. What are these two notions
    • decline: family: considered as the major institution for taking care of children, the elderly, and the ill, seem to have declinded
    • safe: family: considered as the culmination of romantic love, as a symbol of self-achievement
  71. How did modernization change the relationship between romance and marriage?
    romantic love is NOT a modern invention; but seeing romantic love as the only legitimate passage to marriage is

    wont marry someone who never says "iloveyou"; marry for the "right" reason

    • industrialization freed children from financial dependance on children
    • rise of privacy
    • population mobility broke up peer groups and forced emotional attachments
  72. There have been debates over whether cohabitation leads to more stable or unstable marriage. What did the Swedish study in the textbook say
    more prone to divorce
  73. According to Stark, why are divorce rates so high?
    • Women's entry into labor force. As a result, women no longer rely on men for financial support
    • Romantic love increasingly becomes the sole basis of marriage
    • men's income has been in decline
    • no-fault divorce was instituted where couples can divorce by simply stating that they had "irreconcilable differences," without citing "faults" like physical scars.
  74. Study table 13-9 on page 376. Oay attention to who are more or less likely to divorce
    • asain women are less likely to divorce
    • high income couples
    • catholics
    • womens whose parents remained married
  75. According to table 13-10 on page 377, what is the percentage of Americans who admitted to "extramarital affairs" on the General Social Survey in 2000?
  76. Research shows that one-parent families and children's behavioral problems seem to be highly correlated. Stark pointed to three factors that mediate the relationship. Can you find them?
  77. Read the White and Booth study. (pp. 381-382) Why would divorce rates in second marriages be higher than in first marriages?
    • stepchildren
    • more tension, more problems
  78. I presented a study that examines how divorce affects the mental health of children and adults (when they grew into adulthood). Two conclusions can be drawn from that graph. What are they? What did this study NOT tell us about the impact of divorce on children's mental health conditions?
    What is NOT shown in this table though, is that the majority of the children whose parents divorce when they were young were able to bounce back with no major psychological impact.
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