Research Methods: Section Four

  1. The design is basically?
    Structure of the study.
  2. The method is?
    The mode of operation in conducting a research.
  3. An experimental research method applies?
    Specific experimental designs
  4. A non-experimental research method applies?
    Qualitative design
  5. A research design is?
    A means/plan/approach of obtaining data for a study.
  6. The research design explains?
    1. How the study will be organized and implemented.

    2.How sampling will be carried out

    3. How study will be organized

    4.How variable will manipulated and controlled

    5.Tools and techniques for data collecting, presenting and analyzing
  7. The design focuses on?
    1.Quality and quantity (sampling)

    2.Sample size (experimental and control groups)

    3.Number of comparison groups

    4.Number of treatments/manipulations of the independent variables

    5.Sources of subjects/respondents

    6.Mode of manipulating /treating subjects.

    7.Relevant justification for section criteria

    8.Mode of answering questions

    9.Tools to be applied in study

    10. Study period
  8. Designs are classified basing on?
    1.How much a control a researcher can exercise over the variables being manipulated

    2.Equivalenceof groups to be manipulated

    3.Random assignment of variables into experimental and control groups

    4.The possibility of generating empirical findings, with internal and external validity

    5. Number of groups included

    6.Number of treatments expected

    7.Whether there is a post or pre test of the experimental and control groups
  9. Types of designs



  10. Choice of design depends on?
    1.Purpose of study

    2.Type of study

    3.Type of problem identified

    4.Nature of variables to be manipulated

    5.Availability of relevant infrastructure

    6.Skills of researcher
  11. Data collection methods/tools
    1.Diary method

    2.Testing method

    3.Recoding method

    4.Medical examination
  12. What is a questionnaire method/tool?
    A research tool that is a blank form to be filled in by a researcher, respondent or research assistant.
  13. A questionnaire consists of?
    1. Questions (to be answered by respondent)

    2.Statements (to be completed by respondent)
  14. Questionnaires may vary in?



  15. Applications of a questionnaire


    3.Collection of bio data
  16. Types of questionnaires are categorized on basis of?
    1.Dealing with specific or a variety of topics (Simple VS complex)

    2.Target audience (teachers, managers)

    3.Size of form

    4.Response expected: Open, closed or combination

    5.Method of administering: mail, computer or self administered.
  17. Methods of administering questionnaire:


    3.Self administered.
  18. Types of data

  19. What is questionnaire construction?
    A process of creating a form to be applied in data collection (specific) about a problem.
  20. What are the steps in questionnaire construction?
    1.Decide on the data you need from the respondents

    2.Decide how to analyse the data (measurement e.g nominal)

    3.Decide on appropriate questionnaire

    4.Write and review first draft

    5.Pre-test and do relevant adjustments
  21. Before designing, be aware of?
    1.The hypothesis

    2.Data needed, and how to process

    3. Arrangement of questions should be in a logical order
  22. The easy questions should come?
    First, structured questions are easy to understand. Pilot the test before study
  23. The language should be?




    5.Dictionary (Denotative) meaning.
  24. You should ensure that respondents are willing and?
    Able to answer
  25. The question order should be?
    1.Bio data

    2.Factual questions




  26. Types of question format
    1.Funnel method

    2.Inverted funnel

    3.Diamond method

    4.Box method

    5.Mixed method
  27. Funnel method
    Presents questions from the general to specific view of events/situations.
  28. Inverted funnel
    Begins by presenting questions from the specific to the general view of events
  29. Diamond method
    Combines the funnel and inverted methods
  30. Box method
    Gives uniform questions through the questionnaire. E.g strongly agree-strongly disagree
  31. Mixed method
    Comprises of all the all formats
  32. Types of questions vary according to?

    2.Level of information expected

    3.Level of knowledge
  33. Question types range from?
    1.Open to closed

    • 2.]Structured
    • to unstructured

    3.Primary to tertiary

    4.Leading to un-leading

    5.Sentence completion


    7.Multiple choice


    9.Word association

    10.Story completion

    11.Picture completion


    13.Category and quantity/quality
  34. In open questions respondents can?
    A variety of ways.

    *They have the freedom to answer in an unlimited way. The question can be structured or unstructured.*
  35. They are best applied?
    When no possible answer is know by the researcher. Or best for ratio or interval measurements
  36. Difference between structured and unstructured questions
    Structured open question limit and guide the respondent, whereas unstructured can be answered in an unlimited way.
  37. Closed/Dichotomous questions
    These are questions that give specific or alternative ways that a respondent can respond.
  38. Demerits of closed/Dichotomous questions
    Difficult to construct, may lead to guessing, leaving out important answers or alternatives.
  39. Merits of closed/Dichotomous questions
    Easier to administer, analyse and respond to, they save time and increase response rate.
  40. Dichotomous questions are best applied
    When possible answers are known, distinct, discrete and limited in number
  41. Closed questions could be?
    Dichotomous or multiple choice
  42. Dichotomous require what type of answers?
    Yes or No answers
  43. In multiple choice many answers choices are given but?
    Only one choice is made
  44. In dichotomous choices are normally presented on
  45. What is a continuum?
    Scale reflecting the degree/importance of a phenomenon.
  46. In a scale question, points are attached to?
    A continuum basing on specific criteria
  47. In scale type of question, closed questions are given standard?
    Answers that can be applied to compare phenomenon
  48. Merits of scale questions
    They are easier to code, analyse and comprehend because of their structured nature.
  49. Scale questions are best for?
    Sensitive questions
  50. Demerits of scale questions
    Prone to guessing and misinterpretation
  51. What are scale questions?
    These are multiple choice questions that include a scale that a respondent has to react to.
  52. A likert scale shows?
    The degree/amount of agreement or disagreement
  53. The likert scale attaches a value to?
    Each response in a category ranging from 1-5
  54. Semantic differential scale
    A scale is provided between two bipolar words, the respondent chooses a point on the scale that represents his view point.
  55. What are rating scales?
    These are questions that give a scale to rate a phenomenon. *E,g poor to excellent*
  56. Important scale
    • These are questions that give a
    • scale to rate the importance of a phenomenon

    *e.g knowing more than one language is, (a)Extremely important>Not important at all.*
  57. Multiple choice questions are?
    The are questions a respondent is  given a variety of choices
  58. Word association is?
    A question that presents words in turn, then the respondent selects the first word that comes to mind. E.g select a word that comes to mind when you here the word matooke
  59. Advantages of a questionnaire
    • 1.It’s in hardcopy form, can be filled for reference and copied into the research
    • report

    2.Standard and almost uniform questions that can be qualified or processed.

    3.Cheap to use (mail)

    4. Draws information from dumb, shy, busy as well as redundant people.

    5.Can be filled at convenience and then mailed back.
  60. Disadvantages of a questionnaire
    1.Is argued to be inadequate to understand some forms of information - i.e. changes of emotions, behavior, feelings etc.

    • 2. Limited amount of information
    • without explanation

    3. Lacks validity

    4. There is no way to tell how truthful a respondent is being

    • 5. There is no way of telling how much
    • thought a respondent has put in

    6.The respondent may be forgetful or not thinking within the full context of the situation

    7. People may read differently into each question and therefore reply based on their own interpretation of the question - i.e. what is 'good' to someone may be 'poor' to someone else, therefore there is a level of subjectivity that is not acknowledged

    8.There is a level of researcher imposition, meaning that when developing the questionnaire, the researcher is making their own decisions and assumptions as to what is and is not important...therefore they may be missing something that is of importance
Card Set
Research Methods: Section Four
Research Methodologies, Designs and Tools