Measurement information that can be used to describe objects, conditions, events, or changes.
Referent
Vague References. You refer to, or think of, a given property in terms of a more familiar object.
Tools
What you can hold, or observations (patterns)
Objects
Things that can be seen or touched
SI
Standard International
What do each of these measure?
Meter
Kilogram
Kelvin
Second
Ampere
Mole
Candela
Meter: length
Kilogram: mass
Kelvin: temperature
Second: time
Ampere: current
Mole: amount of a substance
Candela: luminosité
Metric system is based on the # ___
10
A cube only measures ___ side, but you can determine ____ & _____.
1 side
Area
Volume
is density based on quantity?
No
The bigger the density, the more ____
mass
As mass increases, so does _____
Density
As density increases, so does ___
Mass
T/F
If you cut a block of platinum in half it's density decreases?
False, density never changes
What the the symbol for density?
P = density
Math terms:
Direct
Inverse
Proportionality
Numerical
Direct: when 1 thing changes another changes in the same direction.
Inverse: One goes up, one goes down
Proportionality: How many liters of gas per hour
Numerical: Number that is constant i.e.: Pi
Before science & experiments it was all ____
Thinking
Condensed scientific method
Collecting observations
Developing explanations
Testing explanations
Hypothesis
tentative explanation for some observation
Experiment
recreation of an event or occurrence to test a hypothesis
Controlled experiment
Fixed set for comparison.
The best because you know which factors influence.
Pseudoscience
False Science
T/F
Principles are more specific than laws
True
T/F Theory has lots of validity & are rarely overturned
True
A model is useful in what 2 instances?
When something is too small, or too big, to be seen
What is the formula for slope?
Y_{1} - Y1
______
X1 - X_{2}
___ ____ is required for any change in a state of motion.
Net force
Friction
When one thing goes over another
Motion
Change in position, explaining how change comes about & being able to apply it
Are speed & velocity the same thing?
No
What are the 3 basic concepts of motion?
Position
Speed & Velocity (not the same thing)
Acceleration
What do Newton's laws of gravitation do?
Govern movement of all particles.
To measure motion you must have what 2 things?
Change in position
Change in time
What are 3 important combinations of legnth & time (needed for motion)?
Speed
Velocity
Acceleration
What is the formula for speed?
Vector shoes _____ & ______
Direction
Magnitude
The ____ the arrow, the longer the magnitude
arrow
Arrows symbolize ______
Magnitude
Speed can stay the same, but you accelerate if you ___ ____
change directions
T/F Stopping is acceleration
True
It is negative acceleration
symbol for "final" and symbol for "initial"
Final: f
Initial: i
What is the formula for average velocity?
(the v has a line over it)
f means: final
I means: initial
Who were the first 2 people to experiment?
Galileo & Newton
The direction you are moving is = ____ ____
Your mass (your weight).
Think tug of war
If there is movement, there is a a ___ ___ of ___
Net Movement of Change
What are the 4 fundamental forces?
Gravitational
Electromagnetic
Weak force
Strong force
The ____ from an object the less gravitational pull it feels, and vise versa.
further
Inertia
Measure of an object's tendency to resist changes in its motion (including rest)
The more ___, the more inerta
mass
In space you must ____ force or you would never move.
accelerate
The longer something falls, the ____ __ ___. What causes this?
Faster it goes
Due to gravity
Terminal Velocity
When you reach a set point where gravity & airflow (velocity) balance, & you can't go any faster unless you change body shape.
Acceleration is the same for all objects when?
In the absence of air
Aerodynamics
How air impacts you
What is the formula for distance?
What does each symbol mean?
d = distance
a = acceleration
t = time
What is the symbol for the force of gravity?
g
What are the 3 types of motion?
Vertical motion
Horizontal motion
Combination of vertical & horizontal (think football arch)
Projectile Motion
Any motion not restricted to the ground. It's shooting through the air.
The longer the vector, the ____ it goes
faster
If you fire, or drop an arrow which hit the ground first?
They will hit at the same time
What are Newton's 3 laws of Motion?
The law of inertia: object will not change it's motion unless acted on by something else (unbalanced force)
2nd Force causes accelerations: more force, more acceleration.
3rd Relates forces between objects: whenever 2 objects interact, the force exerted on one object is equal in size & opposite in direction to the force exerted on the other object.
Formula for Newton's 2nd law of motion?
What do the symbols mean?
force = mass x acceleration
(newton) = kg x meters per second^{2}
If ___ goes up, force & acceleration go down, and vice versa
mass
____ is the measurement of inertia (how much of you there is).
____ is the gravitational pull on your mass.
Mass
Weight
What is the difference between mass & weight?
Mass is how much of you there is, while weight is the gravitational pull on your mass
Formula for momentum
p = mv
(Density = mass x velocity)
Why does a tennis ball hit the ground harder than a paper ball?
Because the more mass, the more momentum.
______ is transformed though working or heating.
Engery
In energy is anything created, or destroyed?
No
What are the manifestations of energy?
work
motion
position
radiation (sun/light)
heat chemical & nuclear energy
mass itself
Physics/work has to do with the _____ & the _____ to which you apply force.
force
distance
What is the formula for work?
W=Fd
work = force x distance
Broken down further it is:
work = mass x acceleration x distance
Metric:
Newton x Meter
In Newton:
What is the formula for Joule?
What does "Joule" stand for?
Newton x meter = Joule
Joule: mechanical energy
Mathematically speaking: If you carry a box up and down a stair has any work been done? Why or why not?
No
Because you are not changing distance
What is the simple distance formula?
F_{in}d_{in}=F_{out}d_{out}
Define Power
Rate at which you work
OR
Rate at which energy is transformed
Formula for Power
P = W/t
The smaller the time, the ____ power.
The more work (Faster), the ____ power.
More Power
More Power
In horse power: the _____ the number, the faster you can go.
Bigger (Think cars)
Which would have more power:
Walking or running a mile?
Which does more work?
Running does more power & more work
Movement is ____ _____
Kinetic Energy
What is "energy"?
What is "work"?
Energy: the ability to do work
Work: process of changing the energy level
Potential Energy is the Energy of _____
Position
Kinetic Energy can be changed into _____ Energy
Potential
Which is more important?
Velocity or Mass?
Velocity
When stopping a car, kinetic energy increases by _____
4
The more distance you cover, the more _____ ____ ___.
work you do
When you have full _____ energy you have zero ________ energy.
And Vice Versa
Full Kinetic Energy you have no Potential Energy, and vice versa
Is nuclear energy a chemical reaction?
NO
Involves splitting an atom
What forms of energy can you convert to another form of energy?
All forms of energy can be converted to another form of energy