Physical Science 1

  1. Data
    Measurement information that can be used to describe objects, conditions, events, or changes.
  2. Referent
    Vague References. You refer to, or think of, a given property in terms of a more familiar object.
  3. Tools
    What you can hold, or observations (patterns)
  4. Objects
    Things that can be seen or touched
  5. SI
    Standard International
  6. What do each of these measure?
    • Meter: length
    • Kilogram: mass
    • Kelvin: temperature
    • Second: time
    • Ampere: current
    • Mole: amount of a substance
    • Candela: luminosité
  7. Metric system is based on the # ___
  8. A cube only measures ___ side, but you can determine ____ & _____.
    • 1 side
    • Area
    • Volume
  9. is density based on quantity?
  10. The bigger the density, the more ____
  11. As mass increases, so does _____
  12. As density increases, so does ___
  13. T/F 
    If you cut a block of platinum in half it's density decreases?
    False, density never changes
  14. What the the symbol for density?
    P = density
  15. Math terms:
    • Direct: when 1 thing changes another changes in the same direction.
    • Inverse: One goes up, one goes down
    • Proportionality: How many liters of gas per hour
    • Numerical: Number that is constant i.e.: Pi
  16. Before science & experiments it was all ____
  17. Condensed scientific method
    • Collecting observations
    • Developing explanations
    • Testing explanations
  18. Hypothesis
    tentative explanation for some observation
  19. Experiment
    recreation of an event or occurrence to test a hypothesis
  20. Controlled experiment
    • Fixed set for comparison.
    • The best because you know which factors influence.
  21. Pseudoscience
    False Science
  22. T/F
    Principles are more specific than laws
  23. T/F Theory has lots of validity & are rarely overturned
  24. A model is useful in what 2 instances?
    When something is too small, or too big, to be seen
  25. What is the formula for slope?
    • Y1 - Y1
    • ______

    X1 - X2
  26. ___ ____ is required for any change in a state of motion.
    Net force
  27. Friction
    When one thing goes over another
  28. Motion
    Change in position, explaining how change comes about & being able to apply it
  29. Are speed & velocity the same thing?
  30. What are the 3 basic concepts of motion?
    • Position
    • Speed & Velocity (not the same thing)
    • Acceleration
  31. What do Newton's laws of gravitation do?
    Govern movement of all particles.
  32. To measure motion you must have what 2 things?
    • Change in position
    • Change in time
  33. What are 3 important combinations of legnth & time (needed for motion)?
    • Speed
    • Velocity
    • Acceleration
  34. What is the formula for speed?
    Image Upload 1
  35. Vector shoes _____ & ______
    • Direction
    • Magnitude
  36. The ____ the arrow, the longer the magnitude
  37. Arrows symbolize ______
  38. Speed can stay the same, but you accelerate if you ___ ____
    change directions
  39. T/F Stopping is acceleration
    • True
    • It is negative acceleration
  40. symbol for "final" and symbol for "initial"
    • Final: f
    • Initial: i
  41. What is the formula for average velocity?
    Image Upload 2

    • (the v has a line over it)
    • f means: final
    • I means: initial
  42. Who were the first 2 people to experiment?
    Galileo & Newton
  43. The direction you are moving is = ____ ____
    • Your mass (your weight).
    • Think tug of war
  44. If there is movement, there is a a ___ ___ of ___
    Net Movement of Change
  45. What are the 4 fundamental forces?
    • Gravitational
    • Electromagnetic
    • Weak force
    • Strong force
  46. The ____ from an object the less gravitational pull it feels, and vise versa.
  47. Inertia
    Measure of an object's tendency to resist changes in its motion (including rest)
  48. The more ___, the more inerta
  49. In space you must ____ force or you would never move.
  50. The longer something falls, the ____ __ ___. What causes this?
    • Faster it goes
    • Due to gravity
  51. Terminal Velocity
    When you reach a set point where gravity & airflow (velocity) balance, & you can't go any faster unless you change body shape.
  52. Acceleration is the same for all objects when?
    In the absence of air
  53. Aerodynamics
    How air impacts you
  54. What is the formula for distance?
    What does each symbol mean?
    • Image Upload 3
    • d = distance
    • a = acceleration
    • t = time
  55. What is the symbol for the force of gravity?
  56. What are the 3 types of motion?
    • Vertical motion
    • Horizontal motion
    • Combination of vertical & horizontal (think football arch)
  57. Projectile Motion
    Any motion not restricted to the ground. It's shooting through the air.
  58. The longer the vector, the ____ it goes
  59. If you fire, or drop an arrow which hit the ground first?
    They will hit at the same time
  60. What are Newton's 3 laws of Motion?
    • The law of inertia: object will not change it's motion unless acted on by something else (unbalanced force)
    • 2nd Force causes accelerations: more force, more acceleration.
    • 3rd Relates forces between objects: whenever 2 objects interact, the force exerted on one object is equal in size & opposite in direction to the force exerted on the other object.
  61. Formula for Newton's 2nd law of motion?
    What do the symbols mean?
    • Image Upload 4
    • force = mass x acceleration
    • (newton) = kg x meters per second2
  62. If ___ goes up, force & acceleration go down, and vice versa
  63. ____ is the measurement of inertia (how much of you there is).
    ____ is the gravitational pull on your mass.
    • Mass
    • Weight
  64. What is the difference between mass & weight?
    Mass is how much of you there is, while weight is the gravitational pull on your mass
  65. Formula for momentum
    p = mv

    (Density = mass x velocity)
  66. Why does a tennis ball hit the ground harder than a paper ball?
    Because the more mass, the more momentum.
  67. ______ is transformed though working or heating.
  68. In energy is anything created, or destroyed?
  69. What are the manifestations of energy?
    • work
    • motion
    • position
    • radiation (sun/light)
    • heat chemical & nuclear energy
    • mass itself
  70. Physics/work has to do with the _____ & the _____ to which you apply force.
    • force
    • distance
  71. What is the formula for work?
    • W=Fd
    • work = force x distance
    • Broken down further it is:
    • work = mass x acceleration x distance
    • Metric:
    • Newton x Meter
  72. In Newton: 
    What is the formula for Joule?
    What does "Joule" stand for?
    • Newton x meter = Joule
    • Joule: mechanical energy
  73. Mathematically speaking: If you carry a box up and down a stair has any work been done? Why or why not?
    • No
    • Because you are not changing distance
  74. What is the simple distance formula?
  75. Define Power
    • Rate at which you work
    • OR
    • Rate at which energy is transformed
  76. Formula for Power
    P = W/t
  77. The smaller the time, the ____ power.
    The more work (Faster), the ____ power.
    • More Power
    • More Power
  78. In horse power: the _____ the number, the faster you can go.
    Bigger (Think cars)
  79. Which would have more power:

    Walking or running a mile?
    Which does more work?
    Running does more power & more work
  80. Movement is ____ _____
    Kinetic Energy
  81. What is "energy"?
    What is "work"?
    • Energy: the ability to do work
    • Work: process of changing the energy level
  82. Potential Energy is the Energy of _____
  83. Kinetic Energy can be changed into _____ Energy
  84. Which is more important?
    Velocity or Mass?
  85. When stopping a car, kinetic energy increases by _____
  86. The more distance you cover, the more _____ ____ ___.
    work you do
  87. When you have full _____ energy you have zero ________ energy.
    And Vice Versa
    Full Kinetic Energy you have no Potential Energy, and vice versa
  88. Is nuclear energy a chemical reaction?
    • NO
    • Involves splitting an atom
  89. What forms of energy can you convert to another form of energy?
    All forms of energy can be converted to another form of energy
  90. What are the 5 forms of energy?
    • Mechanical Energy: Kinetic plus Potential
    • Electrical Energy: Charges, currents, etc.
    • Chemical Energy: chemical reactions
    • Radiant Energy: Electromagnetic energy, visible light
    • Nuclear energy: Involving the nucleus & nuclear reactions.
  91. T/F When swinging a pendulum, it never stops moving?
    • False
    • For a split second it does not move.
  92. A pendulum is an example of what 2 types of energy?
    • Kinetic
    • Potential
  93. Most of our energy, up to _____% can be traced to ___________?
    • 89%
    • Photosynthesis
  94. Petroleum comes from __ ____ ___
    Dead life forms
  95. Coal is
    Compacted plant material
  96. Why will we eventually run out of water?
    Because, while it is renewable, it easily escapes the atmosphere
  97. What are the 2 types of solar technologies and explain.
    • Passive: use solar energy flow naturally. DIrect conversion of light to electricity
    • Active: solar collector use to heat water, air, or some liquid. Mirrors focus to heat water for steam generation.
  98. What is an example of Geothermal Energy?
    Old Faithful
  99. Hydrogen is a biproduct of _____, turns back into _____, but is hard to split.
    from water, to water, hard to split water
Card Set
Physical Science 1
Physical Science 1