Heart 101

  1. Epicardium
    The outermost layer of the heart. The coronary arteries run along this layer.
  2. Myocardium
    The middle and thickest layer. Made of pure muscle and does the work of contracting. It is the part that is damaged during a heart attack.
  3. Endocardium
    The thin innermost layer that lines the hearts' chambers and folds back onto itself to form the heart valves. It is watertight to prevent leakage of blood into the other layers. The cardiac conduction system is found in this layer.
  4. Pericardium
    Surrounds the heart in a double-walled sac. Serves as support and protection and anchors the heart to the diaphragm and great vessels. Fluid called pericardial minimizes friction of these layers as they rub against each other with every heartbeat.
  5. Right Atrium
    Receiving chamber for deoxygenated blood. O2 saturation is only 60-75%. CO2 concentration is high. Delivers blood to the right ventricle.
  6. Right Ventricle
    Pumps blood to the lungs to get O2. Pressure is relatively low and muscle bulk is relatively thin. Only has to transport blood to the lungs.
  7. Left Atrium
    Receiving chamber for blood returning from lungs. O2 saturation should be at 100%. Delivers blood to left ventricle.
  8. Left Ventricle
    Pumps oxygenated blood to the body. Generates the highest pressures; must pump blood to the whole body and resist against the actual blood pressure. Muscle bulk is 3x more than the right ventricle.
  9. Septum
    Mescular band of tissue dividing the right/left sides of the heart.
  10. Interatrial Septum
    Separates the atria
  11. Interventricular Septum
    Separates the ventricles.
  12. Semilunar valves
    Separate a ventricle from an artery and have 3 half-moon-shaped cusps.
  13. Pulmonic Valve
    This valve is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. One of the Semilunar valves
  14. Aortic Valve
    This valve is located between the left ventricle and the aorta. One of the Semilunar valves
  15. Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
    Located between an atrium and a ventricle. Supported by Chordae tendineae (tendinous cords), which are attached to papillary muscles and anchor the valve cusps to keep the closed AV valves from flopping backwards (preventing backflow of blood)
  16. Tricuspid Valve
    Located between the right atrium and ventricle, has three cusps. An atrioventricular valve
  17. Mitral Valve
    Also called Bicuspid valve, located between the left atrium and ventricle. It has 2 Cusps. An atrioventricular valve
  18. S1-The first heart sound
    reflects the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valve.
  19. S2-The second heart sound
    reflects the closure of the aortic and pulmonic valves.
  20. Systole
    Between S1 and S2 the heart beats and expels blood
  21. Diastole
    Between S2 and the next S1 the heart rests and fills with blood.
  22. Superior vena cava (SVC)
    Large vein that returns deoxygenated blood to the right atrium from the head, neck, and upper chest and arms
  23. Inferior vena cava (IVC)
    Large vein that returns deoxygenated blood to the right atrium from the lower chest, abdomen and legs.
  24. Pulmonary artery
    Large artery that takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs to load up on oxygen and unload carbon dioxide. It is the ONLY artery that carries deoxygenated blood.
  25. Aorta
    The largest artery in the body. Takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the systemic circulation to feed all the organs of the body.
  26. Blood Flow through the Heart
    Superior or Inferior vena cava > right atrium > trucuspid valve > right ventricle > pulmonic valve >> pulmonary artery >> lungs >> pulmonary veins >> left atrium >> mitral (bicuspid) valve >> left centricle >> aortic valve >> aorta >> Body
Card Set
Heart 101
Heart Information