Pathology 2 integument

  1. Integument conditions to avoid for massage
    1. Compromised Skin (cut, open wound)

    2. Oozing, Weeping wounds
  2. Common manifestations of skin disease
    • * itching
    • * Edema -fluid swelling, cool to touch
    • * Inflammation-blood swelling, red & warm
    • * Lesions
    • * Scars & Striae
    • * Color
    • * Decreased skin turgor -less elasticity
    • * Nails, hair (extension of integument)
  3. 4 Congenital Disorders
    • Born with congenital disorders
    • 1 Nevus
    • 2 Hemangiona
    • 3 Blue Nevus
    • 4 Dysplastic Nevus
  4. Nevus (congenital Disorder)
    • Most common
    • High concentration melanocytes
    • arranged abnormally
    • happens in stratum basale
  5. Hemangioma
    • Benign tumor of a blood vessel
    • 1 port wine stain=flat, red
    • 2 Strawberry=elevated red bump
  6. Dysplastic Nevus
    • Precursor to malignant melenoma
    • abnormal growth
    •  = to exposed and unexposed sun
  7. 4 Pigmentation disorders
    V
    L
    E
    A
    • Vitiligo *Loss of melanocytes (color)
    • Lentigo *Melanocyte hyperplasia (liver spot)
    • Ephelides *freckle, fade & reappear with season
    • Albinism *failure of melanocyte production
    •                Lack enzyme Tyrosinase
  8. 4 External Injury
    M mothers
    E  eat
    R  radioactive
    T  trout
    • Mechanical Injury
    • Electrical Injury
    • Radiation Injury
    • Thermal Injury
  9. Mechanical Injury
    • Excess friction or pressure
    • Corn *inward stratum corneum thickening
    •           Push deep into skin

    • Callus *upward strum corneum thickening
    •             Push up out skin
  10. Electrical Injury
    • lightening
    • finger in light socket
    • always enter and exit point
    • Death if through heard or brain
  11. Radiation Injury
    • Uv rays
    • x-rays
    • Not reversible
    • causes free radicals
    • Cumulative effects
  12. Thermal Injury
    • 1st degree - epidermis, sunburn, heals rapidly
    •                     no scarrin
    • 2nd degree - epidermis+dermis, blisters,
    •                     healing through adnexa
    • 3rd degree - epidermis+dermis+hypodermis(adnexa)      severe scarring, heals slowly
  13. Risk of 3rd degree burns
    How can massage help
    • * loss of fluids
    • * risk of shock
    • * increased risk of infection
    • Massage can help contractures heal
  14. 5 Inflammatory and Vesicular Skin Disorders
    E
    SD
    Ps
    U
    AV
    • Excema or Dermatitis
    • Seborrheic Dermatitis
    • Psoriasis
    • Urticaria
    • Acne Vulgaris
  15. Exzema or Dermatitis
    • itchy, red rash, not contagious
    • lichenification=thickening of skin, skin markings, chronic scratchin
  16. Seborrheic Dermatitis
    • dandruff, red scaly, itchy hair follicles
    • chronic
  17. Psoriasis
    • inflammatory rash
    • "beefy-red" plaques with silver scaling
    • chronic
    • extensor surfaces and scalp
  18. Urticaria
    • Hives
    • appear and reappear in 24-28 hours
  19. Acne Vulgaris
    • non contagious
    • sebaceous gland
    • hormonally induced
  20. 6 infectious diseases/bacterial
    • impetigo-contraindicated
    • folliculitis-local contraindication
    • cellulitis-contraindicated
    • necrotizing fascilitis-contraindicated
    • leprosy--contraindicated
    • syphilis-contraindicated
  21. Impetigo
    • staph & strep
    • spreads by scratching
    • contagious w/direct contact
    • heals rapidly
    • no scarring
  22. Folliculitis
    • inflammation of follicle
    • staph
    • boil/pimple
  23. Cellulitis
    • Strep
    • acute inflammation subcutaneous tissue often from wound infection
    • Rapidly spread
    • red, hot, swollen
  24. Necrotizing fasciitis
    • Uncommon spread deep subcutaneous tissue
    • limbs, abdominal wall
    • rapid spread
    • amputation or death
  25. Leprosy
    • incubation 9 months to 20 years
    • common tropical county disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae
  26. Syphilis
    • sexually transmitted
    • initial stage-no pain, lesions
    • second stage- pain, rash on body
    • contagious 10 days to 3 months
    • usually effects 20-29 year olds
  27. 7 viral infections
    • small pox
    • chicken pox
    • herpes zoster (shingles)
    • herpes simplex
    • measles
    • molluscum contagiousum
    • wart (verruca vulgaris)
  28. Smallpox
    • vaccination has eradicated
    • caused by variola virus
  29. Chickenpox
    • enters respiratory tract
    • hides in spinal nerves
    • incubation 13-17 days
  30. Herpes Zoster (Shingles)
    • same virus as chickenpox
    • severe pain
    • virus down sensory nerves
  31. Herpes Simplex
    • Type 1-cancers, cold sores
    • Type 2-Genital lesions (sexually transmitted)
    • highly contagious
    • hides spinal nerves
  32. Measles
    • transmitted respiratory tract
    • small dots w/white or blue centers
    • acute highly contagious
  33. Molluscum Contagiousum
    • transmitted direct contact
    • large dome-shaped "pearly" papules
    • folds of arm or groin
    • sexual transmission or swimming pool
  34. Wart (Verruca Vulgaris)
    • skin growth caused by human papilloma virus
    • invades keratynocytes
  35. 2 Fungal Infections
    • Dermatophytes-local contraindication
    • Candidiasis- local contraindication
  36. Dermatophytes
    • fungi infect keratin of stratum corneum
    • infect hair and nails
    • circular, elevated, red scaly skin lesions
    • Tinea Capitis-head
    • Tinea Corporis-body surface
    • Tinea Cruris-ingueal areas (jock itch)
    • Tinea Pedis- athletes foot
    • Tinea Unguium -toenails
  37. Candidiasis
    • yeast infection
    • superficial skin and mucus membranes
    • mouth=thrush
    • blood stream=sepsis
  38. Insect Bites= SCABIES, lice
    • contagious
    • mites burrow into stratum corneum
    • itchy
    • contraindicated
  39. What is the single most important carcinogenic agent in most cutaneous cancer?
    UV light (ultraviolet light)
  40. Seborrheic Keratosis
    • benign
    • keratin filled cysts
    • elderly, trunk extremities face
  41. Keratoacanthoma
    • Benign
    • lesion collapses in on itself
    • cup shaped, irregular keratin
  42. Actinic Keratosis
    • premalignant
    • exposure to sun
    • Brown spots can become carcinogenic
  43. Basal Cell Carcinoma
    • malignant neoplasms
    • light skin people over 40
    • punched out ulcer w/pearly rolled edges
  44. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • malignant
    • elderly, fair skinned individuals
    • locale aggressive
    • rarely metastasizes
    • shallow ulcer w/raised everted, firm border
  45. 5 Neoplasms of skin
    • Seborrheic Keratosis - benign
    • Keratoacanthoma - benign
    • Actinic Keratosis - premalignant
    • Basal Cell Carcinoma - malignant
    • Squamous Cell Carcinoma - malignant
  46. Malignant Melanoma
    1. radial growth phase
    2. vertical growth phase
    • causes most deaths/increase in incidence
    • 1. Radial growth phase-superficial, remove lesion to stop spread to blood

    2. Vertical growth phase-deep into skin, cancer enters bloodstream
  47. Possible Essay
    List and describe the ABCD's of melanoma recognition
    • A - Asymmetry 1/2 different from other
    • B - Border Irregular
    • C - Color Mixed colors, can change color
    • D - Diameter Greater diameter pencil eraser
Author
karij
ID
226444
Card Set
Pathology 2 integument
Description
Path 2 pages 129-144
Updated