Respiratory System

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  1. What are the organs of the respiratory system?
    • Nose
    • Pharynx
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • Lungs - Alveoli
  2. What does the respiratory system do?
    Gas exchanges with the blood, in the alveoli of the lung.
  3. What does the nasal cavity do?
    • Moistens air
    • Traps foreign particles
  4. What do the conchae of the nasal cavity do?
    • Increase surface area
    • Increase air turbulence
  5. What are the palates made of?
    • Hard - bone
    • Soft - muscle
  6. Where are the paranasal sinuses?
    • Frontal bone
    • Sphenoid bone
    • Ethmoid bone
    • Maxillary bone
  7. What is the pharnyx?
    Muscular passage from the nasal cavity to the larnyx
  8. What are the 3 regions of the pharynx?
    • Nasopharnyx - behind nasal cavity
    • Oropharnyx - behind mouth
    • Laryngopharnyx - attached to the larnyx
  9. What structures are in the pharnyx?
    • Auditory Tubes
    • Tonsils:
    • Pharyngeal - nose
    • Palatine - mouth
    • Lingual - tongue
  10. What does the larnyx (voice box ) do?
    • Routes air and food to proper channels
    • Plays role in speech
  11. What are the parts of the larnyx?
    • Thyroid cartilage - largest hyaline cartilage, Adam's apple
    • Epiglottis - opening to the larnyx, routes food and air to correct places
    • Vocal Cords -
    • Glottis - opening between vocal cords
  12. What is the trachea (windpipe)?
    • Connects larnyx with bronchi
    • Walls reinforced with C-shaped hyaline cartilage
  13. What is the primary bronchi?
    • Formed by division of the trachea
    • Enters lung at hilus
    • Divides into smaller and smaller branches
    • Right bronchi is wider, shorter than left.
  14. How many lobes does each side of the lung have?
    • Left - 2
    • Right - 3
  15. What are the lung coverings?
    • Pulmonary pleura - lung surface
    • Parietal pleura - lines walls of the thoracic cavity
    • Pleural fluid - fills area between layers of pleura to allow gliding
  16. What are the respiratory tree divisions?
    • Primary bronchi
    • Secondary bronchi
    • Tertiary bronchi
    • Bronchioli
    • Terminal bronchioli
  17. What are the bronchioles?
    • Smallest branches of the bronchi
    • Terminal bronchioles end in alveoli
  18. What is the respiratory zone?
    • Structures:
    • Respiratory bronchioli
    • Alveolar Duct
    • Alveoli
    • Site of gas exchange
  19. What are the structures of the alveoli?
    • Duct
    • Sac
    • Alveolus
  20. What is the air-blood barrier?
    Respiratory membrane
  21. What is gas exchange?
    • Oxygen enters the blood
    • Carbon dioxide enters the alveoli
  22. What is Pulmonary Ventilation?
    Moving air in and out of the lungs
  23. What is external respiration?
    gas exchange between pulmonary blood and alveoli
  24. What is respiratory gas transport?
    transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide via the blood stream
  25. What is internal respiration?
    gas exchange between blood and tissue cells
  26. Phases of breathing (Pulmonary Ventilation)
    • Inspiration - air into the lung
    • Expiration - air out of the lung
  27. What happens during inspiration?
    • Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract
    • Size of thoracic cavity increases
    • Air is pulled into the lungs due to increase in intrapulmonary volume
  28. What happens during expiration?
    • Muscles relax
    • Air is pushed out of the lungs
    • *can force air out by contracting internal costal muscles
  29. What keeps the lungs from collapsing?
    • Differences between pressure and lung and pleural space
    • pleural space pressure is always negative
  30. What are non-respiratory air movements?
    • cough/sneeze
    • laughing
    • crying
    • yawn
    • hiccup
  31. What is tidal volume?
    • The amount of air that normal breathing moves out of the lungs
    • 500ml
    • 1200ml remains in lungs
  32. What is the inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)?
    • Amount of air that can be taken in forcibly
    • 2100 - 3200 ML
  33. What is the Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)?
    • Amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled
    • 1200ml
  34. What is the residual volume?
    • Air remaining in the lung after respiration
    • 1200ml
  35. What is vital capacity?
    • Total amount of exchangable air
    • TV + IRV + ERV
  36. What is dead space volume?
    • Air that remains in the conducting zone and never reaches the alveoli
    • 150ml
  37. What is functional volume?
    • Air that reaches the respiratory zone
    • 350ml
  38. How are respiratory capacities measured?
    With a spirometer
  39. How are bronchial sounds produced?
    Air rushing in through the trachea and bronchi
  40. How are vesicular breathing sounds produced?
    air filling the alveoli
  41. Facts about external respiration:
    • Alveoli always have more oxygen than blood
    • Oxygen moves by diffusion to area of lower concentration
    • Carbon dioxide moves out of the blood
    • Blood leaving the lungs is oxygen rich and carbon dioxide poor
  42. How is oxygen transported in blood?
    • Inside red blood cells, attached to hemoglobin
    • Small amount disolved in plasma
  43. How is carbon dioxide transported in the blood?
    In the plasma as bicarbonate ion (HCO3-)
  44. How does internal respiration work?
    • Carbon dioxide diffuses out of tissue to blood
    • Oxygen diffuses from blood into tissue
  45. What is the normal respiratory rate?
    12 - 15 breaths per minute
  46. What is hypernia?
    increased respiratory rate due to extra oxygen needs
  47. What is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD?
    • Chronic bronchitis and emphysema
    • Major cause of death and disability in US
    • Commonly caused by smoking
    • Coughing and pulmonary infections are common
  48. What is emphysema?
    • Alveoli enlarge
    • Chronic inflammation of the lungs
    • Airways collapse during expiration
    • Large amount of energy needed to exhale
  49. What is chornic bronchitis?
    • Mucousa of the lower respiratory passages becomes severely inflamed
    • Mucous production increases
    • Risk of lung infection increases
    • Pneumonia is common
  50. 3 types of lung cancer:
    • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • Adenocarcinoma
    • Small Cell Carcinoma
  51. How do the lungs develop?
    • Lungs filled with fluid in the fetus
    • Not fully inflated with air until 2 weeks after birth
  52. What are birth defects of the respiratory system?
    • Cystic Fibrosis
    • Cleft Palate
  53. How do respiratory rates change throughout life?
    • Newborns - 40 - 80
    • Infants - 30
    • Age 5 - 25
    • Adults - 12 - 18
    • Rate often increases with old age
Card Set
Respiratory System
Respiratory System
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