Anthropology 102 Midterm

  1. What Is Anthropology?
    The study of the biological and cultural evolution and diversity of human beings, past and present
  2. Anthropology is a comparative
    discipline which seeks to
    • understand what makes
    • people different and what they all have in common.
  3. Some societies have no regulations surrounding sexual activity.
    A) True 
    B) False
  4. Nowhere in the world have anthropologist documented same-sex marriages.  In all human societies such unions are deemed inappropriate under any circumstances.  
    A) True  
    B) False
    B) False
  5. A(n) _______________ is a closely examined and critically checked out explanation of observed reality. 

    C. theory
  6. Cultural anthropology is the study of patterns of human behavior.  These standards 

    E. focus on humans as culture producing and re-producing creatures
  7. Anthropologists doing fieldwork typically involve themselves in many different experiences. They try to investigate not just one aspect of culture (such as the political system) but how all aspects relate to each other (for example, how the political system fits with economic institutions, religious beliefs, etc.).  This approach is called the _______________perspective.

    A. holistic
  8. In-depth descriptive studies of specific cultures are called _______________. 

    E. ethnographies
  9. An ethnologist can be described as someone who _______________. 

    A. develops a theory of culture by comparing many specific cultures
  10. Ethnographic fieldwork _______________.

    D. can also be applied to the study of Western industrialized societies
  11. According to Bronislaw Malinowski, the nature of an institution is determined by its

    C. structure
  12. A detailed description of a particular culture based on fieldwork is called 

    D. ethnography
  13. The belief that one’s own way of life is superior to others is _______________. 

    B. ethnocentrism
  14. The process in which culture is transmitted from one generation to the next is called
  15. The first clear and comprehensive definition of culture was made by _______________. 

    B. Edward B. Tylor
  16. The Garbage Project in Tucson demonstrated that what people say and what they do can differ dramatically.  For instance, investigators found that 

    B. the amount of beer consumed, according to empty cans in the trash, was far higher than people claimed
  17. No known human societies exist, or have existed, that do not exhibit culture. 
    A. True
  18. Anthropology is _______________.           

    D. the study of humankind everywhere, throughout time
  19. The term “gender” refers to _______________.

    C. cultural meanings assigned to the biological differences between the sexes
  20. Because of the objectivity of anthropological training, anthropologists are able to eliminate the biases that might affect their descriptions of culture in the field.
    B. False
  21. The branch of anthropology that studies human languages is called

    A. linguistic anthropology
  22. Gender, in cultural anthropology, refers to cultural elaborations and meanings assigned to the biological differentiation between sexes.
  23. What type of descent is found associated with Trobriand society?

    A. Matrilineal
  24. Define Matrilineal Descent is traced exclusively through the_______line of acestry to establish group membership.
    A. Male
    B. Female
    B. Female
  25. ___________________ is the term used to refer to what an anthropologist does when they go to a place to observe a cultural activity first hand.

    D. Fieldwork
  26. What is the first step in doing ethnographic fieldwork?

    • A. choosing a research question
    • (It all begins with selecting a research site and a research problem or question)
  27. The most important anthropological research tool by far is participant observation.
  28. What is a species? 

    D. a population of individuals able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring
  29. The hypothesis that modern humans originated through a process of simultaneous local transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens throughout the inhabited world is called the

    A. multiregional hypothesis
  30. The first members of the genus Homo first appeared around _______________ years ago. A.3.5 million 
    B.4.5 million 
    C.1.5 million
    D.2.5 million
    D.2.5 million
  31. Extended on-location research to gather detailed information about a society’s culture is called

    C. Ethnographic fieldwork
  32. The primary method in the anthropologist’s toolkit, regardless of the time period, has always been _______________. 

    B. participant observation
  33. Anthropologists use _______________. 

    C. both quantitative and qualitative data
  34. Which came first for humans?

    B. a large brain
  35. National character studies were most popular during

    B. World War II
  36. A tool that researchers rely on to learn about a culture by examining their behaviors and beliefs through social interaction is ________________________. 

    D. participant observation
  37. Which anthropologist did a “re-study” of the Trobriand Islanders?

    B. Annette Weiner
  38. By the late 1800s, which groups were sponsoring anthropologists’ expeditions to collect cultural artifacts?

    B. Museums
  39. One of the first U.S. anthropologists to study acculturation was Margaret Mead in her 1932 fieldwork

    B. among the Omaha Indians
  40. Qualitative data is data that is ___________________________________.

    B. Excellent in quality
  41. When do paleoanthropologists believe that human culture began? 

    D. 2.5 million years ago
  42. _______________ are typically represented in the popular media as “cave men.” 

    A. Neandertals
  43. The australopithecine “Lucy” was discovered in _______________.

    A. 1974
  44. The agents of enculturation _______________. A.vary, depending on the structure of the family into which a child is born 
    B.are at first the members of the family into which the child is born 
    C.are persons involved in transmitting culture to the next generation
    D.all of the above
    D.all of the above
  45. Human culture as we know it could have easily existed without language.  
  46. Kinesics is a method for notating and analyzing _______________. 

    C. any form of body language.
  47. From the Native American perspective the spirit of a human is superior to the spirit of any other thing.  
  48. Standards that define normal behavior for any culture are determined by that culture itself. A.True   
  49. A system of communication based on symbols is called a _______________.

    B. language
  50. All _______________, as systems of communication using sounds or gestures that are put together in meaningful ways according to a set of rules, are organized on the same basic plan. 

    B. languages
  51. Studies of _______________ were developed during the 1930s and 1940s to explore the idea that basic personality traits were shared by most of the people in modern nations. 

    C. national character
  52. One way that culture is preserved and shared...
    Enculturation : Process whereby culture is passed on from one generation to the next.
  53. The first responsibility of the anthropologist
    The (AAA) American Anthropologist Code of Ethics: Do everything in their power to ensure that their research does not harm the safety, dignity, or privacy of the people with whom they work, conduct research, or perform other professional activities.
  54. The extent of regulations surrounding sexual activity from society to society
    • In some societies sexual intercourse during pregnancy is taboo, whereas in others it is looked upon positively  as something that promotes fetus growth.
    • In several cultures same sex acts are not only accepted but even but even prescribed. Papua societies in New Guinea, male to male sexual acts are part of initiation rituals required for all boys to become respected adult men.
    • In a Taliban controlled village in Afghanistan, conservative mullahs (priest) found a young couple of guilty of adultery, were buried waist deep and stone to death. (Amnesty International 2010)
  55. Participant observation
    • The technique of learning a people’s culture through direct participation in their everyday life over an extended period of time.
    • The most significant aspect of ethnographic research
    • A research method in which one learns about a group’s beliefs and behaviors through social participation and personal observation within the community, as well as interviews and discussion with individual members of the group over an extended stay in the community.
  56. The encounter that prompted the birth of anthropology in the 19th century
    They hayday of colonialism when many Europeans anthropologist focused In the study of traditional peoples and their cultures in the colonies overseas.
  57. Genetic analyses and origin of the human line
    The human genome (the genetic design of a species with its complete set of DNA) Closest Primate Relatives-Chimpanzee, Bonobo, Gorilla, and Orangutan. Most DNA shared Chimpanzee 98.3%,
  58. The idea of “gender” in cultural anthropological studies
    Anthropologist use the term gender to refer to the cultural elaboration and meanings assigned to the biological differentiation between the sexes. Sex is biologically determined, one's gender is socially constructed within the context of one's particular culture.
  59. Culture is shared
    • All members of a culture will hold a shared set of values, ideas, perceptions, and standards of behaviors
    • This does not mean that everyone within a culture will act and think the exact same way. 
    • Culture cannot exist without society- an organized group of people who share a territory, language, and culture
    • There are no known human societies that do not exhibit culture
  60. Biologists classify humans as
    Homo sapiens which are members of the animal order primates.
  61. Mutations in genes are the cause for ?
    variation among all living organisms.  These are random changes in the genetic coding process
  62. Genes are the basic physical units of heredity that make up ?
    make up the physical and biological aspect of all living organisms.
  63. Migrant workers in china
    • China as 114 million migrant workers that form part of new residential patterns in ever growing numbers. People that left peasant villages and traveled to fast growing cities to work. 
    • Many migrant workers work in factories and live in factory dormitories.
  64. Anthropologists and the idea of “progress”…
    Confused with the idea of progress, the notion that humans are moving forward to better, more advance stage in their developmental toward perfection. Not all changes turn out to be positive.
  65. Anthropology
    • The study of the biological and cultural evolution and diversity of human beings, past and present.
    • A comparative discipline which seeks to understand what makes people different and what they all have in common
  66. Linguistic anthropology
    • Studies human languages:
    • Description of a language the way a sentence is formed or a verb conjugated
    • History of languages - the way languages change over time.
    • The study of language in its social setting,
    • such as discourse – an extended speech act on a particular topic.
  67. The first clear and comprehensive definition of culture
    Came from British anthropologist Sir Edward Tylor. In 1871 he defined culture as that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habitts acquired by man as a member of society.
  68. Laura Nader
    • in 1960 became the 1st woman faculty member in the anthropology department at the University of California, Berkeley.
    • Term studying up, called out anthropologist to focus on Western elites, government bureaucracies, global corporation, philanthropic, foundations, media empires and business clubs.
  69. Quantitative & Qualitative data
    • Quant: Statistical or measurable data. 
    • Qual: Non-statistical information, such as personal life stories and customary beliefs and practices.
  70. Trobriand Island descent system
    Through women, Matrilineal System
  71. The birth of human culture
    • Came into existance 2.5mya, Stone flakes and choppers are
    • the hallmark of early hominid culture.  The emergence of these mark the beginning of the Lower Paleolithic, the first part of the Old Stone Age, from about 2.6 million years ago-200,000/ (250,000) years a
  72. Frans Boas
    • 1st to teach anthropology in the United States
    • Did his 1st ethnographic research among the Inuit (Eskimo) in the Artic Canada in 1883-84.
    • Professor in Columbia University in New York
    • As a Jewish immigrant he recognized the Dangers in of ethnocentrism
  73. Jane Goodall
    • Biological Anthropology
    • Study great apes in the wild
    • Born in London 
    • Chimpanzees ans primate conservation
  74. The first members of the genus Homo
    Homo habilis
  75. Charles Darwin
    • The theory of natural selection was first formulated by a 19th century naturalist
    • In his theory, individuals with characteristics best suited to a particular environment survive and reproduce with greater frequency than individuals without those characteristics
  76. Gregor Mendel
    • Priest study physics (Father of Genetics)
    • Experiment in plant Hybridisation was the 1st to formulate the basic laws of biological inheritance
    • Inheritance of each biological traits is determined by "units" or "factors" (later called genes" that are passed to descendents unchanged
  77. The idea of “leveling mechanism”
    Potlatches often compel others in the society to also give away goods by hosting a public feast so that no one person accumulates more wealth than another
  78. market exchange
    Buying and selling of goods and services, with prices set by rules of supply and demand
  79. Reciprocity
    • There are three main forms of reciprocity which one mode of distribution
    • Generalized - The value of what is given is not calculated and repayment is not specified
    • Balanced -A direct obligation to reciprocate in equal value for the relationship to continue
    • Negative - The giver tries to get the better of the deal.
  80. Redistribution
    • is the form of exchange in which goods flow into a central place where they are sorted, counted, and reallocated. 
    • In societies with a surplus to support some sort of government, goods in the form of gifts, tribute, taxes, and the spoils of war are gathered into storehouses controlled by a chief or some other type of leader.
  81. An example of biological adaptation among the Aymara
    Adapt to high altitude with O2 pressure is far lower than most humans are biologically accustomed. (Hypoxia low level of oxygenation of the blood)
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Anthropology 102 Midterm
Mid Term Study Guide