Digestive System

  1. What are the organs of the Alimentary Digestive System?
    • Mouth
    • Pharynx
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Small Intestine
    • Large Intestine
    • Anus
  2. What are the 2 parts of the digestive system?
    • Alimentary Canal
    • Accessory Digestive Organs
  3. What does digestion do?
    • Breaks down digested food
    • Absorbs nutrients into the blood
  4. What is metabolism?
    Production of cellular energy (ATP)
  5. What is the uvula?
    Fleshy projection of the soft palate
  6. What is the hard palate?
    Anterior Roof of mouth
  7. What is the soft palate?
    Posterior roof of mouth
  8. What is the vestibule?
    Space between lips externally and gums internally
  9. What is the oral cavity?
    Area contained by the teeth
  10. Where is the tongue attached?
    Hyoid and Styloid processes of the skull by the lingual frenulum
  11. 2 Types of tonsils
    • Palatine
    • Lingual
  12. What are the parts of the pharynx?
    • Nasopharnyx - not part of the digestive system
    • Oropharynx - posterior to oral cavity
    • Laryngopharynx - connected to esophagus
  13. What does the pharynx do?
    Allow food and air to pass
  14. What are the 2 muscle layers of the esophagus?
    • Longitudinal Inner Layer
    • Circular Outer Layer
  15. What is peristalsis?
    Contraction of the muscle layers to move substances (like food)
  16. Where is the esophagus?
    • From pharnyx to stomach through diaphragm
    • Only good goes through the esophagus
  17. What is the mucosa?
    • Inner most layer
    • Moist membrane
  18. What is the submucosa?
    • Layer just beneath the mucosa
    • Soft connective tissue with blood vessels
  19. What is muscularis externa?
    • Inner circular layer
    • Outer longitudinal layer
  20. What is serosa?
    Outer most layer - visceral peritoneum
  21. What is the alimentary canal nerve plexuses?
    • Submucosal Nerve Plexus
    • Myenteric Nerve Plexus
    • Subserous Plexus
  22. Where does food enter the stomach?
    Cardioesophageal Sphincter
  23. Where is the stomach?
    Left side of abdominal cavity
  24. 4 regions of the stomach
    • Cardiac Region - near the heart
    • Fundus
    • Body
    • Phylorus - funnel shaped terminal end
  25. Where does food empty into the small intestine?
    Pyloric Sphincter
  26. What are the external regions of the stomach?
    • Lesser Curvature
    • Greater Curvature
  27. What are the layers of the peritoneum?
    • Lesser Omentum - attaches the liver to the lesser curvature
    • Greater Omentum - attachers greater curvature to posterior body wall
  28. What does the stomach do?
    • Stores food
    • Breaks food down
    • Begins breakdown of protiens
    • Delivers chime to the small intestines
  29. What kind of tissue is the mucosa of the stomach?
    Simple Columnar Epithelium
  30. What do the gastric glands produce in the stomach?
    Gastric Juice
  31. What do parietal cells produce in the stomach?
    Hydrochloric Acid
  32. What do endocrine cells produce in the stomach?
  33. What do chief cells produce in the stomach?
    Pepsinogens - protien digesting enzymes
  34. What do the mucous neck cells produce in the stomach?
    sticky alkaline mucous
  35. What are gastric pits?
    Pits formed by folded mucosa
  36. What is the small intestine?
    Body's major digestive organ that absorbs nutrients into the blood
  37. What are the subdivisios of the small intestine?
    • Duodenum - Attached to the stomach, curves around head of pancreas
    • Jejunum - Attaches to the duodenem
    • Ileum - Extends from jejunum to large intestine
  38. How does digestion in the small intestine take place?
    • Enzymes mix with chime
    • Bile enters from the gallbladder
  39. What are the vill of the small intestine and what do they do?
    Small fingerlike structures that give the small intestine more surface area.
  40. What are the microvilli of the small intestine and what do they do?
    Small projections of the plasma membrane found on absorbptive cells
  41. What structures are involved in the absorption of nutrients?
    • Absorptive cells
    • Blood capillaries
    • Lacteals (special lymphatic capillaries)
  42. Which part of the small intestine has peyers patches?
  43. What are the functions of the large intestine?
    • Absorbs water
    • Creates feces
    • "Goblet cells" produce mucous to act as a lubricant
  44. What are the 5 structures of the large intestine?
    • Cecum - first part
    • Appendix - lympatic tissue, hangs from cecum
    • Colon
    • Rectum
    • Anus
  45. What are the 4 parts of the colon?
    • Ascending
    • Transverse
    • Descending
    • Sigmoid (s-shaped)
  46. What is the teniae coli?
    Band of muscle that run along the colon
  47. What are the accessory digestive organs?
    • Salivary Glands
    • Teeth
    • Pancreas
    • Liver
    • Gall bladder
  48. What are the 3 saliva producing glands?
    • Parotid
    • Submandibular
    • Sublingual
  49. What is saliva and what does it do?
    • Mixture of mucous and serous fluids
    • Helps form food bolus, dissolves chemicals so they can be tasted, begins starch digestion
  50. What is a full set of teeth?
    32 teeth
  51. What are Deciduous teeth?
    Baby teeth
  52. What are the 4 types of teeth?
    • Incisors
    • Canines
    • Premolars
    • Molars
  53. What are the regions of a tooth?
    • Crown - exposed part
    • Neck - region in contact with the gum
    • Root - part attached to the bone
  54. What does the pancreas do?
    • Produce digestive enzymes, which are secreted to the duodenum
    • Produce the hormones Insulin and Glucagon
  55. What is the liver?
    • Largest gland in the body
    • Located on right side under diaphragm
    • Connected to gall bladder via hepatic duct
    • Has 4 lobes
  56. What is bile?
    Liquid made of bile salts, pigment, cholesterol, phospholipids and electrolytes, produced in the liver
  57. What is the gall bladder?
    Sac found in the hollow foss of the liver that receives and stores bile from the cyctic duct, and sends it to the duodenum in the presense of fatty food.
  58. 2 Processes of the digestive system
    • Ingestion - getting food into the mouth
    • Propulsion - moving food from one region to the other
    • Mechanical Digestion - chewing in mouth, churning in stomach, segmentation on small intestine
    • Chemical Digestion - enzymes break down food molecules
  59. What is segmentation?
    Moving materials back and forth to aid in mixing
  60. What are carbohydrates broken down to?
    Simple sugars
  61. What are protiens broken down to?
    amino acids
  62. What are fats broken down to?
    fatty acids and alcohols
  63. What is absorption?
    End products of digestion are absorbed in the blood or lymph
  64. What controls digestive activity?
    Parasympathetic division
  65. What are the 2 types of deglutition (swalling)?
    • Buccul phase - in the mouth, voluntary
    • Pharyngeal-esophagal phase - Involuntary, all passageways exept the stomach are blocked
  66. How is gastric juice regulated?
    Neural and hormonal factors
  67. What causes the release of gastrin in the stomach?
    Food presense of falling pH levels
  68. Why does the stomach have to be so acidic?
    Provids a hostile environment for microorganisms
  69. What are the protien digestion enzymes?
    • Pepsin - regular protiens
    • Rennin - milk protien
  70. How long does it take the stomach to empty?
    • 4 - 6 hours
    • 30ml at a time
  71. Why do pancreatic enzymes play the major role in digestion?
    • Digestion of starch
    • Half of all protien digestion
    • Fat digestion
    • Neutralizes chyme
    • Digests nucleic acids
  72. How do substances get to the liver from the small intestine?
    • Hepatic portal vein
    • Lymph
  73. How are lipids absorbed?
  74. How does the large intestine work?
    • Bacteria break down nutrients
    • Absorbs water
    • Absorbs vitamins K and B
  75. How are substances propulsed through the large intestine?
    • Sluggish Peristalsis
    • 3 - 4 times a day
  76. What are the 6 nutrients?
    • Carbohydrates - plants
    • Lipids - saturated/unsaturated fats & cholesterol
    • Protiens - contain amino acids
    • Vitamins - found in all major food groups
    • Minerals - veggies, legumes, milk, meat
    • Water - everything is dependant on water
  77. What is catabolism?
    • substances broken down to simpler substances
    • releases energy
  78. What is anabolism?
    larger molecules built from smaller ones
  79. What is glycolysis?
    Turns sugar into ATP
  80. What is the Krebs cycle?
    Produces carbon dioxide and water from cell respiration
  81. How is fat metabolized?
    In the liver, somtimes to make ATP
  82. How is protien metabolized?
    • Protiens are conserved by body cells
    • Ingested protiens are turned into amino acids
  83. What is the livers role in metabolism?
    • Detoxifies drugs and alcohol
    • Degrades hormones
    • Produces cholesterol, blood protiens
    • Plays central role in metabolism
  84. What is glycogenesis?
    Glucose molecules converted to glycogen and stored in the liver
  85. What is Glycogenolysis?
    Glucose is released from the liver
  86. What is glucogenesis?
    Glucose is produced from fats and protiens
  87. What is the function of cholesterol?
    • Structural basis for steroid hormones and vitamin D
    • Building block of plasma membranes
    • Cannot freely circulate in the blood stream
  88. What is BMR (basic metabolic rate?)
    • Amount of heat produced by the body per unit of time at rest
    • Small bodies have higher BMR
    • Males have higer BMR than females
  89. What is TMR (total metabolic rate?)
    • Amount of kilocalories the body must consume to fuel ongoing activities
    • TMR must equal calories consumed to maintain weight
    • TMR increased with bodily activity
Card Set
Digestive System
Digestive System