med surg

  1. pituitary gland
    • sits underneath hypothalamus
    • cradled in sella tunica
  2. pineal gland
    • center of brain on roof of 3rd ventricle
    • cone shape
  3. adrenal gland
    • perched on top of each kidney
    • two distinct glands
  4. thymus*
  5. thyroid gland*
    • lies across the trachea
    • two lobes
  6. pancreas
    • lies behind stomach
    • head tucked in the curve of beg. of sml int
    • tail into spleen
  7. parathyroid gland
    post surface of the thyroid gland
  8. gonads
    testes and ovaries
  9. feedback mechanisms
    • control regulation of endocrine activity
    • triggered by blood vessels of specific substances regulated by hormones
  10. negative feedback
    high levels of a substance inhibit hormone synthesis and secretion, whereas low levels stimulate hormone synthesis and secretion
  11. poistive feedback
    high levels ofa substance stimulate hormone synthesis and secretion, whereas low levels inhibit additional synthesis and secretion
  12. hormones are
    chemicals that influence almost every cell and organ in the body
  13. anterior pituitary
    • adenohpophysis
    • tropic hormones that stimulated other endo cells to release their hormones.
    • synthesizes hormones
  14. growth hormone gh
    stimulates growth and development of bones, muscles, and organs
  15. adrenocorticotropic hormone acth
    controls growth, development, and function of the cortex of the adrenal glands. controls release of glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens which are necessary for release of aldosterone
  16. thyroid stimulating hormone tsh
    controls secretory activities of thyroid gland
  17. follicle stimulating hormone fsh
    stimulates the development of eggs in the ovary and sperm production
  18. luteinizing hormone lh
    controls ovulation ore egg release and testosterone production in males
  19. prolactin
    stimulates the breast milk production
  20. melanocyte
    • stimulating hormone msh
    • promotes pigmentation
  21. posterior pit
    • neurohypophysis
    • stores hormones produced by the hypothalamus
  22. antidiuretic hormone adh
    causes the reabsorption of water from the renal tubes of kidney causing uop to decrease
  23. oxytocin
    causes contractions of the uterus in labor and the release of breast milk
  24. thyroid
    plays a major role in regulating the bodys rate of metabolism and growth and development
  25. thyroxine t4
    • thyroid hormone has 4 iodine atoms in ea hormone.
    • increase metabolic rate
  26. triiodothronine t3
    • has 3 iodine atoms in ea hormone
    • increase metabolic rate
  27. calcitonin throcalcitonin
    • helps regulate serun calcium levels
    • secreted when ca increases and triggers ca back into bone
  28. parathyroid hormone pth
    regulates serum ca levels. secreted when ca decre and incre the absorption of ca from the intestine, transferes ca from bones to bld, and signals kidneys to conserve energy
  29. thymus
    • also part of immune system bc of actions of the h but bc it secretes h that makes it part of endo system
    • 1. thymosin
    • 2. thymopoietin
    • both play a role in the development of the nerv system
  30. adrenal glands
    • adrenal cortex is 90% of the adrenal gland
    • secretes steroid hormones
  31. mineralcorticoids - aldosterone
    • help maintain an adequate extracellular fluid vol, aldosterone functions at the renal collecting tubule to promote reabsorption of na and excretion of k by kidneys.
    • regulated by serum level of k, rennin - angiotensin mechanism, and acth
  32. glucocorticoids - cortisol
    controls carb, lipid, and fat metabolism. regulation of anti-inflammatory and immune responses, control of emotional states
  33. sex steroids
    • a. androgens - masculization in men (testosterone)
    • b. estrogen - only source of estrogen after menopause
  34. adrenal medulla
    • 10% of gland and contains sympathetic ganglia. stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system causes the medulla to secrete catecholamines:
    • 1. epinephrine
    • 2. norepinephrine

    *major function is adaptation to stress and maintenance of homeostasis
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med surg