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When should doppler use be avoided?
Used for obstetrical doppler are: (5)
1. Maternal vessels
2. Fetal Vessels
3. Fetal ductus venosus
4. Fetal heart
What are the 2 basic types of doppler us?
With increasing GA there is a __________________ in the S/D ratio.
How do you calculate Resistive Index?
S-D / S
How do you calculate PI?
S-D / mean
As the vascular resistance increases what happens to the:
They both increase
What happens to the PI as the GA increases?
In normal pregnancies, the umbilical vein venous flow is _________________.
_____________ during fetal breathing.
Some factors related to reduced blood flow to placenta: (4)
What would happen to diastolic velocity if placental resistance increased?
How is the resistance arrangement when IUGR head sparing occurs?
increased resistance AO & umbilical artery
decreased resistance in fetal middle cerebral artery
Which fetal vessel is studied the most extensively?
The umbilical artery has ______________ resistance flow.
Increase in fetal HR causes ______________ in pulsatility.
Umbilical Artery: S/D ratio <3.0 is normal? T/F
Risks associated with abnormal S/D ratio include:
decreased amniotic fluid
Risks associated with admission to NICU
When assessing umbilical artery you should locate a spot close to fetal abdomen/placenta?
___________ or ___________ of diastolic flow is a significant finding and indicates placental ____________.
absence or reversal
Elevated S/D ratios are associated with: (3)
severe growth restriction
Fetal doppler of MCA is used to detect "________ _______ ______"
brain sparing effect
MCA has _______ cerebral blood flow and little diastolic flow
MCA PI = ?
MCA acronym HABS stands for
Which are the highest velocities found in fetal cardiovascular system?
Flow Rt to Lt
Maternal uterine artery gives off branches near ?
sup lat along corpus
ant ---> external iliac
When do you sample MUA?
After 12 weeks the MUA has a ____________resistance flow pattern
What is an abnormal S/D ratio of MUA?
above indicates increased vascular resistance and decreased blood supply to uterus
notching on diastolic is bad
MUA normal PI? RI ?
PI = .82
RI = 4.7
What may be one of the earliest signs of IUGR especially if there is maternal HTN?
arcuate artery with reduced flow
Umbilical artery & vein reflect changes in the _______________ vascular bed.
How many weeks before fetus appears to be in trouble may doppler parameters become abnormal?
4 or more
Studies have shown that ___________________ as part of the OB management has resulted in a reduction of emergency c-sections?
In severe PIH doppler studies correlate well with _______ ______.
You can see doppler changes 24hrs before/after nonstress test?
In discordant twins, doppler has/has not proven to be more useful than EFW.
With cardiac anomalies, doppler can gage systolic function by measuring: (3)
Smoking can increase maternal HR and BP therefore increasing fetal ____________ and _____________blood flow
Doppler of umbilical artery that is suggestive of distress or compromise would be?
absent or reversal of flow