EDU 272

  1. L7 Explain 'positive' and 'negative' reinforcers.
    • positive: strengthening desired behavior by presenting a desired stimulus after the behavior.
    • E.G. the dog sits on Command, the dog gets a tasty snack

    • negative: strengthening behavior by removing an aversive (irritating or unpleasent) stimulus when the behavior occurs.
    • E.G.  For example, cleaning the room allows a child to escape a parent's nagging. In this case, an event is subtracted or absent.
  2. L10 Summarize the conditions in the ARCS model that impact motivation.
    Attention: For learning to occur someone must be paying attention. Use of humor helps, and for others doing something novel or unexpected captures their attention.

    Relevance: students perceiving the material presented as important to them. They need to know that learning this information will help them at a later time.

    Confidence: When students experience success during learning activities, they infer that they can perform successfully in the future. Success builds confidence.

    Satisfaction: Students feel satisfied when their expectations about learning are met.
  3. L7 How are Skinner's Schedules of Reinforcement and behaviorism incorporated in our schools today?
    Behavior and classroom management plans
  4. L7 Describe Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory.
    Some portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences. In other words, people do not learn new behaviors solely by trying them and either succeeding or failing, but rather, the survival of humanity is dependent upon the replication of the actions of others. Depending on whether people are rewarded or punished for their behavior and the outcome of the behavior, that behavior may be modeled.
  5. L8 How does the brain process information?
    When someone pays attention to something in the sensory register, it enters the short-term memory then it moves into long-term memory (LTM) where it is stored. Information from the LTM or the STM passes to the response generator where it is organized to generate a response. From the response generator, information moves to the effectors, which produce a response, such as: speaking, writing, or moving.
  6. L7 Define each element of Skinner's schedules of reinforcement.
    Interval schedules: Based on time or an interval of time

    • Ratio schedules: Based on number of responses
    • -- arrange a certain ratio of responses to reinforcement, e.g., five responses per reinforcement

    Fixed schedules: Fixed schedules deliver reinforcement at a constant predictable rate.

    Variable schedules: Variable schedules deliver reinforcement that is not constant but varied.

    Primary reinforcer: something that is basic to human function, such as: Love, Food, Sex, Water, Shelter, and Physical comfort.

    Secondary reinforcer: a neutral object or gesture that acquires the power to reinforce behavior as a result of it being paired with one or more primary reinforcers.
  7. L9 How will you incorporate Bloom's Taxonomy and EEI in your instruction when you teach?
    • Bloom's Taxonomy consists of six levels progressing from the simplest level of knowing something (just facts, just information) to the more complex level where a student can analyze information, apply it, and evaluate it.
    • Often used in unit and lesson planning; developing learning objectives

    Using taxonomy will help progress the students using key word in EEI to create a lesson plan that will intreague and help student progression.
  8. L8 What is Metacognition? What are some ways to improve children's metacognition?
    Metacognition refers to the ability to know about how you know or "thinking about thinking". 

    Teaching students to be aware of the learning  strategies they are using helps. This can be done through modeling Our thinking process. 

    Using mnemonics such as a writing strategy called DEFENDS.thinking out loud while solving a math problem.
  9. L10 Describe 'intrinsic motivation' and 'extrinsic motivation' in the context of student motivation.
    Intrinsic motivation: learners work for inernal reasons, such as pleasure, enjoyment, and curiosity.

    extrinsic motivation: learners work for external reasons, such as money, praise, to please parents, or to avoid punishment.
  10. L6 Describe the characteristics of gifted learners and include one method of educating children who are gifted learners.
    • Precocity: gifted children...
    • - seem to learn more effortlessly than other children in one area.
    • -begin to master an area or domain before their peers.
    • -March to their own drummer
    • -learn in different way than other children.
    • - seem to require less support from adults than non-gifted children.
    • - make discoveries on their own and can have normal or above normal intelligence.
    • - passion to master
    • -  show an intense and obsessive interest in an area.
    • - have an interest in learning all there is to know in a specific area.
    • - do not need to be pushed by their parents in their area of interest.
    • -
    • The methods you use in your future classroom to keep students engaged will be very important. The more interested, engaged, and excited about school students are the less challenging behavior you will find.
  11. L9 What is the difference between teacher-centered instruction and student-centered instruction?
    Teacher-Centered Instruction is where the teacher has a high level of control over the teaching and learning process.

    Student-Centered instruction moves the focus of the learning activity away from the teacher and toward the students. The teacher is a facilitator not a boss.
  12. L8 Explain how environment relates to a student's learning and who is responsible for this being a factor.
    The teacher is responsible for a good learning environmet for students. If there is a good learning environment the students are capable of learning more easier.
  13. L8 List the knowledge factors of ’metacognition’.
    Declarative knowledge: facts, data, or information. 

    Procedural knowledge: knowing how the carry something out; the correct procedures. 

    Conditional knowledge:   knowing when to carry out the procedures
  14. L8 What are the methods of rehearsing or elaborating information to enhance retention?
    Chunking is a way of organizing information into pieces to make memorizing easier. One obvious example is phone numbers; they are 10 digits long but are "chunked" or organized as: (###) ###-####

    Mnemonics are techniques used to help remember information; they can be made up of acronyms or rhymes, or mental images. Examples: "i before e, except after c" or Super Man Helps Every One (Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario) to remember the names of the Great Lakes.
  15. L9 Read & review information needed to write Instructional objectives.
    PERFORMANCE: description of the behavior that your students are expected to perform. The behavior must be measurable and observable.

    CONDITION: description of the circumstances under which the performance will be carried out.

    STANDARD: description of the criteria for acceptance of performance as sufficient to master the objective.Use words that are action words.
  16. L9 What are the six categories of Bloom's Taxonomy?
    • LEVEL 1: KNOWLEDGE; The recall of facts
    • LEVEL 2: COMPREHENSION; First level of understanding: translating information into one's own words
    • LEVEL 3: APPLICATION; Using information in a new situation
    • LEVEL 4: ANALYSIS; Breaking information down into small parts
    • LEVEL 5: SYNTHESIS; Constructing something new by putting together several pieces of information into a new whole.
    • LEVEL 6: EVALUATION; Judgment based on criteria of value of worth
  17. L6 What are the legal aspects of working with disabled children including IDEA, IEP, LRE and inclusion?
    IDEA: requires states to provide free appropriate public education for all students with disabilities.

    IEP: Individualized Education Program. an agreement between the parents and the school about the services that will be provided. Includes present performance, measurable goals, when the student isn't in a classroom, and how students takes state tests.

    LRE: least restrictive environment. educating each child with peers in classroom as much as possible.inclusion: intergration of all students (including severe disibilities) in to regular classes.

    inclusion: intergration of all students (including severe disibilities) in to regular classes
  18. L7 Describe Skinner's Schedules of Reinforcement.
    • Fixed Interval: Reinforcement for a correct response only after a certain period of time has passed--same time period (ex. Weekly spelling bee)
    •  -- FI 10-s, the interval is always 10 seconds.

    Variable Interval: Time interval between reinforcement. A new interval is selected (more or less at random) after each reinforcement; the schedule specifies only the average interval size and the subject cannot predict how long the next interval will be.

    • Fixed Ratio: Reinforcement for a predetermined or fixed number of responses.  Time doesn't make any difference---it could occur fast or slow. Every nth response produces a reinforcer.
    • EXAMPLES: Read five books, then get certificate;  on FR-7 every 7th response is followed by a reinforcer.

    Variable Ratio: Reinforcement comes after a varied number of responses. Ratio requirement changes unsystematically following each reinforcer delivery. The schedule specifies only the average number of responses required for reinforcement -- e.g., on VR-10, it would require on average 10 responses per reinforcement.
  19. L7 What is the Hawthorne Effect?
    The alteration of behavior by the subjects of a study because they are being observed.
  20. L8 Define 'chunking' and 'mnemonics' in short-term memory.
    Chunking is a way of organizing information into pieces to make memorizing easier. One obvious example is phone numbers; they are 10 digits long but are "chunked" or organized as: (###) ###-####

    Mnemonics are techniques used to help remember information; they can be made up of acronyms or rhymes, or mental images. Examples: "i before e, except after c" or Super Man Helps Every One (Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario) to remember the names of the Great Lakes.
  21. L7 What is behaviorism?
    A school of thought that focuses on the observable behavior, instead of on mental or cognitive processes.
  22. L6 Explain the 2 options School districts follow for determining a student’s eligibility under the category of learning disabilities.
    OPTION 1

    Step 1: Determination of Underachievement - Oral expression, Listening comprehension, Written expression, Basic reading skill, Reading fluency skills, Reading comprehension, Mathematics calculation, and Mathematics problem solving.

    Step 2: Determination of Response to Interventions (or Both) - Does the student fail to make sufficient progress in achievement considered adequate for his age

    Step 3: Determination of Appropriate Instruction - the school or district must provide documentation that proves that the student has been provided appropriate instruction by qualified personnel.

    Option 2

    • 1. A severe discrepancy between the student's intellectual ability and academic achievement.
    • 2. An exclusion criterion.
    • 3. A need for special education services.
  23. L10 Describe the impact of teacher's expectations on student learning.
    When teachers set high expectations for students AND encourage them, plus give positive feedback, by and large, students will rise to the occasion.
  24. L7 Explain 'continuous' and 'intermittent' reinforcement.
    • Continuous reinforcement: continuously reinforcing a specific desired behavior.
    • The Continuous Reinforcement (CRF) Schedule -- every response produces a reinforcer. This is the schedule Skinner was using in his initial studies.

    • Intermittent reinforcement: dependent on some schedule or a combination of schedules.
    • -- responses are only occasionally reinforced
  25. L10 What are the components of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
    The original hierarchy of needs five-stage model includes:

    1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep.

    2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability.

    3. Social Needs - Belongingness and Love, - work group, family, affection, relationships.

    4. Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility.

    5. Self-Actualization needs - realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.
  26. L7 What is Thorndike's Law of Effect.
    responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation
  27. L6 Describe the various types of exceptional learners.
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) - Fidgety, Distractible, Can't sit still for longer than a few minutes, Messy handwriting, Clumsy, Immature, and Disorganized.

    Speech and Language Disorders - Articulation disorders (Problems in pronouncing sounds correctly), Voice disorders (Speech is harsh, hoarse, too loud, or too low-pitched), Fluency disorders (Stuttering), and Language disorders (Significant challenge in receptive language (understanding language) or expressive language (expressing thoughts, communicating with others))

    Mental Retardation (MR) - range from mild to severe, school districts are placing mildly mentally retarded students in regular classrooms. characteristics are A lack of age-appropriate self-help skills, such as dressing, feeding, toileting, Lack of ability to learn Poor adaptive skills, such as having trouble getting along with others, Lack of self-control. Qulification for MR are I.Q. below 70, Difficulty with adaptive skills, and Developmental period. Common Genetic Factors causing Mental Retardation include; Down syndrome and Fragile X syndrome.

    Emotional and Behavioral Disorders - exhibited by aggression, depressions, fears and inappropriate interaction in relationships. Turned Inward students may show signs of depression, anxiety and fear. Turned Outward students exhibited disruptive, defiant, aggressive behaviors and are removed from the regular classroom.

    Sensory Disorders - individual's five senses do not function properly;  A person with SPD finds it difficult to process and act upon information received through the senses, which creates challenges in performing countless everyday tasks. Motor clumsiness, behavioral problems, anxiety, depression, school failure, and other impacts may result if the disorder is not treated effectively.

    Hearing Impairments - student turns his/her head toward the speaker, asks to have things repeated, and does not follow direction on a regular basis.

    Physical Disorders - Two areas commonly found are orthopedic impairments and seizure disorders.

    Orthopedic Impairments - movements are restricted and lack of control of movements.A common orthopedic impairment is cerebral palsy (CP) and exibit spasticity (rigid muscles). Range from very severe and confined to a wheel chair with no speech to some students with normal speech and a mild limp.
  28. L6 From least to most restrictive environments, what planning, placement, and services are available?
    A. Regular Education Classes/InclusionCollaboration/consultation/co-teaching services focus on special educators (Intervention Specialists) and general educators working together to best meet the needs of students with disabilities as well as children who may be "at risk". Each school operates Response to Intervention Teams to promote data driven instruction, to individualize learning experiences and to effectively integrate resources which would positively impact the child's educational program.

    B. Individual/Small Group Setting (Tutoring)The Individual/Small Group Instruction program provides students with disabilities support that helps to increase their opportunity to benefit from regular class placement. This is supplemental instruction which focuses on targeted IEP goals and objectives. Depending upon each student’s individual needs, this instruction could include academic support , as well as assisting students in becoming independent in the "process" of learning through the use of compensatory strategies, and study/organizational techniques.

    C. Resource Room  The Resource Room serves children whose disabilities require intensive programming. Continued participation in the child's regular class activities is encouraged. The Resource Rooms offer an alternative/modified curriculum in a small group setting, which provides personalized options that are not offered in the general education program. These placements are considered cross-categorical, meaning students with a variety of disabilities are served in the same special class.

    D. Separate Facility Separate facilities are, typically, schools outside of the district that are designed specifically for students with disabilities.

    E. Home Instruction home instruction is an individualized education program provided at home to a child with a disability which prevents the child from attending a regular or special program even with the aid of special transportation.

    F. Institutions and Hospitals.
  29. L9 What are the eight elements of Madeline Hunter's effective instruction?
    Anticipatory Set: in order for an individual to learn they must pay attention. So, your first task is to "grab their attention".

    Objective and Purpose: inform students of what to expect, what is coming next.

    Input: This is the portion of a lesson where the teacher gives instruction.

    Modeling: an example of when the teacher demonstrates the activity or lesson

    Checking for Understanding: teacher obtains information from the students to determine if they have comprehended the material covered in the lesson before continuing on to the next lesson 

    Guided  Practice: allows students to practice what they have just learned before teaching the next concept.

    Closure: culmination of the lesson or concept. Summarization of the topic occurs during this stage.

    Independent Practice: commonly called homework help in the retention of the material that was covered.
Card Set
EDU 272
Flash cards for the EDU 272 (Ed. Psyche) final exam