Chapter 6 - Memory

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  1. Memory
    The process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information.
  2. Sensory Memory
    The initial, momentary storage of information, lasting only an instant.
  3. Short-Term Memory
    Memory that holds information for 15 to 25 seconds.
  4. Long-Term Memory
    Memory that stores information on a relatively permanent basis, although it may be difficult to retrieve.
  5. Chunk
    A meaningful grouping of stimuli that can be stored as a unit in short-term memory.
  6. Rehearsal
    The repetition of information that has entered short-term memory.
  7. Working Memory
    A set of active, temporary memory stores that actively manipulate and rehearse information.
  8. Declarative Memory
    Memory for factual information: names, faces, dates, and the like.
  9. Procedural Memory
    Memory for skills and habits, such as riding a bike or hitting a baseball; sometimes referred to as nondeclarative memory.
  10. Semantic Memory
    Memory for general knowledge and facts about the world, as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used to deduce other facts.
  11. Episodic Memory
    Memory for events that occur in a particular time, place, or context.
  12. Semantic Networks
    Mental representations of clusters of interconnected information.
  13. Tip-of-the-tongue Phenomenon
    The inability to recall information that one realizes one knows - a result of the difficulty of retrieving information from long-term memory.
  14. Recall
    Memory task in which specific information must be retrieved.
  15. Recognition
    Memory task in which individuals are presented with a stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it in the past or to identify it from a list of alternatives.
  16. Levels-of-processing Theory
    The theory of memory that emphasizes the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed.
  17. Explicit Memory
    Intentional or conscious recollection of information.
  18. Implicit Memory
    Memories of which people are not consciously aware but that can affect subsequent performance and behavior.
  19. Priming
    A phenomenon in which exposure to a word or concept (called a prime) later makes it easier to recall related information, even when there is no conscious memory of the word or concept.
  20. Flashbulb Memories
    Memories centered on a specific, important, or surprising event that are so vivid it is as if they represented a snapshot of the event.
  21. Constructive Processes
    Processes in which memories are influenced by the meaning we give to events.
  22. Schemas
    Organized bodies of information stored in memory that bias the way new information is interpreted, stored, and recalled.
  23. Autobiographical Memories
    Our recollections of circumstances and episodes from our own lives.
  24. Decay
    The loss of information in memory through its nonuse.
  25. Interference
    The phenomenon by which information in memory disrupts the recall of other information.
  26. Cue-dependent Forgetting
    Forgetting that occurs when there are insufficient retrieval cues to rekindle information that is memory.
  27. Proactive Interference
    Interference in which information learned earlier disrupts the recall of newer material.
  28. Retroactive Interference
    Interference in which there is difficulty in the recall of information learned earlier because of later exposure to different material.
  29. Alzheimer's disease
    An illness characterized in part by severe memory problems.
  30. Amnesia
    Memory loss that occurs without other mental difficulties.
  31. Retrograde Amnesia
    Amnesia in which memory is lost for occurrences prior to a certain event.
  32. Anterograde Amnesia
    Amnesia in which memory is lost for events that follow an injury.
  33. Korsakoff's Syndrome
    A disease that afflicts long-term alcoholics, leaving some abilities intact, but including hallucinations and a tendency to repeat the same story.
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Chapter 6 - Memory
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