Chapter 5 - Learning

  1. Learning
    A relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience.
  2. Classical Conditioning
    A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response.
  3. Neutral Stimulus
    A stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest.
  4. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
    A stimulus that naturally brings about a particular response without having been learned.
  5. Unconditioned Response (UCR)
    A response that is natural and needs no training (e.g. salivation at the smell of food)
  6. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    A once-neutral stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by the unconditioned stimulus.
  7. Condition Response (CR)
    A response that, after conditioning, follows a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. salivation at the ringing of a bell)
  8. Extinction
    A basic phenomenon of learning that occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears.
  9. Spontaneous Recovery
    The reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest and with no further conditioning.
  10. Stimulus Generalization
    A process in which, after a stimulus has been conditioned to produce a particular response, stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus produce the same response.
  11. Stimulus Discrimination
    The process that occurs if two stimuli are sufficiently distinct from one another that one evokes a conditioned response but the other does not; the ability to differentiate between stimuli.
  12. Operant Conditioning
    Learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences.
  13. Reinforcement
    The process by which a stimulus increases that probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated.
  14. Reinforcer
    Any stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will occur again.
  15. Positive Reinforcer
    A stimulus added to the environment that brings about an increase in a preceding response./
  16. Negative Reinforcer
    An unpleasant stimulus whose removal leads to an increase in the2 probability that a preceding response will be repeated in the future.
  17. Punishment
    A stimulus that decreases the probability that a previous behavior will occur again.
  18. Schedules of Reinforcement
    Different patterns of frequency and timing of reinforcement following desired behavior.
  19. Continuous Reinforcement Schedule
    Reinforcing of a behavior every time it occurs.
  20. Partial (or intermittent) Reinforcement Schedule
    Reinforcing of a behavior some but not all of the time.
  21. Fixed-Ratio Schedule
    A schedule by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses are made.
  22. Variable-Ratio Schedule
    A schedule by which reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses rather than after a fixed number.
  23. Fixed-interval Schedule
    A schedule that provides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has elapsed, making overall rates of response relatively low.
  24. Variable-Interval Schedule
    A schedule by which the time between reinforcements varies around some average rather than being fixed.
  25. Shaping
    The process of teaching a complex behavior by rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
  26. Behavior Modification
    A formalized technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones.
  27. Cognitive Learning Theory
    An approach to the study of learning that focuses on the thought processes that underlie learning.
  28. Latent Learning
    Learning in which a new behavior is acquired but is not demonstrated until some incentive is provided for displaying it.
  29. Observational Learning
    Learning by observing the behavior of another person, or model.
Card Set
Chapter 5 - Learning