1. Pursed-lip breathing
    Exhalation through mouth with lips pursed together to slow exhalation
  2. adventitious sounds
    are extra breath sounds that are abnormal.
  3. Adventitious breath sounds include crackles, rhonchi, wheezes, and pleural friction rub
  4. dyspnea
    shortness of breath
  5. Elastic recoil
    tendency for the lungs to relax after being stretched or expanded.
  6. Fremitus
    vibration of the chest wall produced by vocalization.
  7. Pleural friction rub
    Creaking or grating sound from roughened, inflamed pleural surfaces rubbing together; evident during inspiration, expiration, or both and no change with coughing; usually uncomfortable, especially on deep inspiration.
  8. Stridor
    Continuous musical or crowing sound of constant pitch; result of partial obstruction of larynx or trachea
  9. Wheezes
    Continuous high-pitched squeaking or musical sound caused by rapid vibration of bronchial walls; first evident on expiration but possibly evident on inspiration as obstruction of airway increases; possibly audible without stethoscope
  10. Rhonchi
    Continuous rumbling, snoring, or rattling sounds from obstruction of large airways with secretions; most prominent on expiration; change often evident after coughing or suctioning
  11. Coarse crackles
    Series of long-duration, discontinuous, low-pitched sounds caused by air passing through airway intermittently occluded by mucus, unstable bronchial wall, or fold of mucosa; evident on inspiration and, at times, expiration; similar sound to blowing through straw under water; increase in bubbling quality with more fluid
  12. Fine crackles
    Series of short-duration, discontinuous, high-pitched sounds heard just before the end of inspiration; result of rapid equalization of gas pressure when collapsed alveoli or terminal bronchioles suddenly snap open; similar sound to that made by rolling hair between fingers just behind ear
  13. Kussmaul respirations
    Regular, rapid, and deep respirations
  14. Cyanosis
    Bluish color of skin best seen in lips and on the palpebral conjunctiva (inside the lower eyelid)
  15. Finger clubbing
    ? Depth, bulk, sponginess of distal portion of finger
  16. Abdominal paradox
    Inward (rather than normal outward) movement of abdomen during inspiration
  17. tidal volume
    volume of air exchanged with each breath, is about 500 mL.
  18. Surfactant
    a lipoprotein that lowers the surface tension in the alveoli. It reduces the amount of pressure needed to inflate the alveoli and decreases the tendency of the alveoli to collapse.
  19. sigh
    each person takes a slightly larger breath
  20. Atelectasis
    refers to collapsed, airless alveoli
Card Set
CHAPTER 26: Nursing Assessment: Respiratory System