Chapter 31

  1. Who was Ford's VP? How did the New Right feel about this?
    Nelson Rockefeller. They were infuriated with Ford's choice for VP.
  2. What was "Whip Inflation Now" (WIN)?
    It offered a one-year income tax surcharge and cuts in federal spending as solutions to inflation. Prices and unemployment still rose.
  3. What were Ford's policies regarding Southeast Asia?
    He pledged a renewal of military support to the south vietnam government if it ever became directly menaced by North Vietnam. Congress made this impossible.
  4. What happened with Mayaguez?
    It was a ship that was captures by a contingent of Khmer Rouge, the man that took over Cambodia. Ford ordered a rescue mission and bombing strikes against Cambodia. They released the ship.
  5. Who were the candidates in the 1972 election?
    Ford, Republican and Carter, Democrat with VP Walter Mondale.
  6. What did Carter's campaign emphasize in 1976?
    His personal character. He campaigned he was a born again Christian.
  7. What was the Georgia Mafie?
    Some of Carter's advisers that he relied on that were Georgians.
  8. What is OPEC, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries?
    A cartel dominated by oil-rich nations in the MIddle East,. They dramatically raised the price of crude oil and precipitaed acute shortages across the glove, particularly in the US.
  9. What were Schlesingers goals for energy?
    • 1. Decrease U.S. reliance on foreign oil and natural gas
    • 2. Expand domestic energy production through new tax incentives and deregulation of natural gas production
    • 3. Levy new taxes to discourage gasoline use
    • 4. Foster conservation by encouraging energy-saving measures
    • 5. promote nonpetroleum energy sources;especially coal and nuclear power.
  10. How did Carter and Schlesinger attempt to achieve the goals set by Schlesinger?
    The president suddenly announced an energy proposal that included more than 10 provision. Congress quickly shut this plan down.
  11. What happened in Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania.
    A malfunction of a reactor nearly produced a nuclear meltdown.
  12. What happened to the economy during Carter's administration?
    By 1980, the economy had virtually stopped expanding and unemployment was rising.
  13. What happened to New York City economically during Carter's administration?
    They could neither meet its financial obligations or borrow new money through normal channels. Private bankers and public officials had to secure conggessional "bailout" legislations that granted federal loan gurantees to NYC.
  14. What did Carter do to Vietnam draft resisters?
    He let them come back to the US. He granted them amnesty.
  15. What was Carter's foreign policy based on?
    Human Rights
  16. What did Carters top advisers want in foreign policy?
    • Brezinski- favored hard-line, anti-Soviet policy with an emphasis on military muscle
    • Vance- preferred to avoid confrontations and to engage in quiet diplomacy.
  17. What did Carter do with Panama?
    He secured treaties that granted Panama increasing authority over the waterway to culminate in full Panamanian control in 2000.
  18. How did Carter convince us to let Panama control the Panama Canal?
    He argues that us being in control of the Panama Canal caused anti-Yankee sentiment throughout Latin America. he also convinced senators that he canal was no longer the economic and strategic necessity it had once been.
  19. What happened at the Camp David peace talks of 1978?
    Relations between egypt and Israel had been strained since the Yom Kippur War of 1973. Carter brought Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat, leaders of Israel and Egypt, respectively, to Camp David. After 13 days of bargaining, the three leaders announced the framework for a negotiating process and a peace treaty.
  20. Which president finally established formal diplomatic ties with China on New Year's Day?
  21. What happened in Nicaragua?
    The Sandinista movement overthrew the guy the US supported who was repressive. The Sandinista movement turned to a militant Marxist, group and began to expropriate private property. Carter opposed this but did nothing about it because he could not immediately change it.
  22. What was the Iran Hostage Crisis?
    The US had supported the leader of Iran, Shat Reza Pahlavi, but he was overthrown by a revolutionary movement. The Carter administration allowed the Shah to receive medical treatment. A group of Iranians then seized the US embassy in Tehran and 66 american hostages. They demanded the return of the Shah in exchange for the release of the hostages. Carter sent a military mission to rescue the hostages but it failed. Carter never could resolve the situation. They released the hostages when Carter became president.
  23. What did Carter to in protest to the Soviet Union's expansion?
    • He halted grain exports to the Soviet union
    • He boycotted the 1980 olympic games
    • and withdrew a new SALT from the Senate
    • revived registration for the military draft
  24. Who almost beat Carter for the democratic nominee?
    Edward Kennedy
  25. Who were the candidates in 1980?
    Reagan and Carter.
  26. What campaign did Reagan run on?
    • He opposed many domestic social programs.
    • He supported a stronger national defense.
    • He promoted massive tax cuts.
  27. What is a "misery index"?
    A term Reagan used in the 1980 election. it added the rate of unemployment to the rate of inflation.
  28. Who was Reagan's running mate?
    George H.W. Bush
  29. When did Republicans take over the senate for the first time since 1954?
  30. What happened to unions under Reagan's administration?
  31. What was the "sagebrush rebellion"?
    Western states demanded fewer restrictions on the use of public land within their border. Watts supported this which angered environmentalists
  32. Who was James Watts?
    Secretary of interior during Reagan's administration
  33. Who were the candidates in 1984?
    Walter Mondale and Reagan
  34. What was Mondale's platform?
    Ran on a platform to end discrimination in all aspects in life. He advocated for an expansion of national social welfare programs and higher taxes.
  35. "casino capitalism"?
    process of deregulating the banks
  36. What happened to many saving and loans institutions during the Reagan administration?
    They faced financial disaster. Because of lax oversight from fed. regulators, many S&Ls overextended loans to risk ventures, particularly in real esstate, and incurred financial obligations far beyond their means.
  37. What was the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings act of 1985?
    It mandated a balanced federal budget by 1991.
  38. What was the Family Support Act of 1988?
    It required states to inaugurate work training programs and to move people off the welfare rolls.
  39. What was another name for the Strategic Defense Initiative?
    Star Wars
  40. What was the Caribbean Basin Initiative?
    Rewarded with U.S. aid those small nations in the Caribbean region that adhered to free-market principles.
  41. Who was Oliver North?
    He directed Iran-Contra,
  42. Candidates in 1988?
    George H.W. Bush with J. Danforth Quayle v. Michael Dukakis
  43. How did Dukakis run his campaign?
    He spoke about bringing honesty to the white house and boasted of his knowing how to mobilize private expertise and handle economic matters. He ran a cautious campaign. He avoided talking about new domestic programs and higher taxes.
  44. What was the campaign of 88 known for?
    It's negative campaigning.
  45. Which year had the lowest voter turnout since 1924?
    Election of 1988.
  46. What is the Civil Rights Act of 1991?
    A law that critics charged with establishing "quotas" for the "preferential hiring" of women and people of color in business and governemnt.
  47. Under which president was NAFTA?
    George H.W. Bush
  48. What happened with Manuel Noreiga, the president of Panama?
    He was involved in drug trafficing. Bush decided to get rid of him.
  49. What was Operation Just Cause?
    U.S. marines landed in Panama and pinpointed Noreiga's whereabouts, and laid seize to his headquarters. He soon surrendered and faced extradition to Florida and was imprisoned in 1992.
  50. What was Operation Desert Shield?
    When Bush send 23,000 troops to protect Saudi Arabia.
  51. What did "Patriots" do?
    They intercepted Iraqi "Scud" missiles.
  52. Candidates in election of 1992?
    H.W. Bush with Quayle and Clinton with Gore
  53. What policies did Clinton run on?
    He promised to increase gov't spending for job creation and long-term economic growth. He promised a revision of health-care/
  54. Who is Ross Perot?
    He ran in the election of 1992. He got 20% of the popular vote but no electoral votes
  55. First female secretary of state?
    Madeleine Albright
  56. What is Americorps?
    Allows students to pay back their college loans through community service
  57. Brady Bill?
    Instituted a 5 day waiting period before purchasing a handgun.
  58. What was Whitewater?
    The Clinton's joint involvement in financial dealing in Arkansas drew criticism. Kenneth Starr was appointed as the special prosecutor in this case.
  59. Election of 1996
    Clinton and Dole
  60. What is Kosovo?
    In 1999, Clinton supported a NATO bombing campaign in Kosovo. They did this to protect ethnic Albanian Muslims from an "ethnic cleansing" program directed by Serbia's president. We won this and established a new president in Serbia
  61. Plan Colombia?
    Combat drug cartels and guerilla fighters
  62. Patriot Act?
    Gave the executive branch broad latitude over the surveillance and detention of people it consdered threats to national security.
Card Set
Chapter 31
Notes from book