Art 12-18

  1. What three cultures flourished along the islands of the Aegean Sea, Crete and the Aegean Coast?
    Cycladic, Minoan, and Myceneaen
  2. When was the Cycladic culture around?
    3200 to 2000 B.C.
  3. What figures are highly appealing to modern sensibilities?
    Simplified, geometric nude female figures.
  4. What did the Cycladic's produce as well as the female sculptures?
    Decorated pieces of pottery as well as marble bowls and jars
  5. Where did the Minoan culture develop?
    On the island of Crete, centered around the city of Knossos.
  6. When did the Minoan's reach their peak?
    200 B.C.
  7. Where did the legend of the Minotaur actually take place?
    In the city of Knossos in the royal palace.
  8. What does the art of the Minoan culture depict?
    Sea life and statues of a female snake goddess.
  9. What were the two major painting forms that the Minoans painted?
    Frescoes on palace walls and pottery designs.
  10. What were the Minoan architectural achievements?
    Four major, unfortified, light and organic in style.
  11. What do many historian believe happened to the Minoans?
    That they were destroyed by the Mycenaeans.
  12. What did the Mycenaeans create?
    Elaborate tombs, skilled relief sculptures, and mastery of gold smithing.
  13. What was the difference between the Greek and Egyptian statues?
    The Greek statues used the same frontal pose but were more dynamic and placed greater emphasis on depicting realistic human features.
  14. What materials did the Greeks use in sculpture?
    Limestone and marble.
  15. What were the sculptures of the Early Classical Period characterized by?
    Solemnity, strength and simplicity of form, often focusing on a figure the moment before or after an important action.
  16. The stiff frontal posture of the Archaic Period were abandoned during the Early Classical Period for...
    More complex and life-like figures and positions.
  17. What was Contrapposto?
    Counter positioning, a form where a standing figure has his weight on one foot for a more relaxed pose.
  18. Greek sculpture set the standard for art during what movements?
    Renaissance, Baroque, and Neoclassical.
  19. The Middle  Classical Period is important due to the advances in...
    Temples, such as the Parthenon which was destroyed by Persians and then rebuilt.
  20. Why did architecture decline in the Late Classical Period?
    Because Athens was defeated during the Peloponnesian War.
  21. The Hellenistic Period say a blending of what two styles?
    Greek and Asian Minor styles.
  22. What works were notable from the Hellenistic Period?
    Venus die Milo and the Laocoon Group.
  23. Etruscan art is seen as a transition between...
    The ideals of Greece to pragmatic concerns of the Romans.
  24. Why are there no remaining Etruscan buildings?
    Because they were built out of brick and wood.
  25. The only paintings from the Etruscan culture are?
    Paintings on tombs that depict figures playing music and dancing during funeral celebrations painted in bright, flat colors.
  26. The Etruscan's were talented in...
    Bronze work.
  27. The Roman sculptures and other artworks reflected the influence of what culture?
    The Greeks.
  28. The discovery of what was a major contribution to architecture?
    A modern day  equivalent of concrete.
  29. The two buildings that can still be seen in Rome are...
    The Colosseum and the Pantheon.
  30. What were Roman sculptures used in?
    Funeral processions, the sculpture was the deceased family member; also on top of triumphal arches displaying Roman emperors or military victories.  In each case the idealized portrait of the man was presented based on Roman ideals.
  31. What art form is best known from the Byzantine Empire?
    The mosaic where small ceramic tiles or other material were set into a ground to make large murals.
  32. Mosaics are largely from what religion?
  33. What Byzantine work is considered one of the greatest architectural achievements in history?
    The Hagia Sophia.
  34. During the medieval era art was generally preserved by the...
  35. During the Medieval Era books were confined to...
    The monasteries.
  36. The books helped do what?
    Helped facilitate the spread of artistic ideals between Northern and Southern Europe.
  37. Two notable examples of books were?
    The Book of Kells and The Coronation Gospels.
  38. The art of the early Germanic peoples is notable for their...
    Metalwork that was abstract, decorative,  and geometric, often taking the form of small-scale portable jewelry or ornaments made of bronze, silver, or gold and covered with patterns of jewels.
  39. What was the most important medium to the Vikings?
  40. The blending of the artistic styles of the Vikings,  Anglo-Saxons, and Celtic Ireland formed a style called?
  41. In later medieval art the architecture of what became the dominant art form?
  42. The style of church architecture that uses a Roman arch is called?
  43. What is one famous example of a Romanesque Church?
    Saint-Sernin in Toulouse, France.
  44. A tunnel of arches is called a...
    Barrel Vault.
  45. Because of the massive walls to support the heavy stone arches the buildings window and door openings were usually...
    Kept small and decorated with carvings or relief sculpture.
  46. The Gothic Style was popular between?
    The first half of the 12th century and into the 16th century.
  47. The use of pointed arches caused what?
    The eye to be drawn upward and towards heaven.
  48. What was the purpose of the flying buttress?
    To counteract the downward and outward pressure of the arches.
  49. A classical example of a Gothic Cathedral is?
    Chartres Cathedral in France.
  50. The artist most mentioned with the transition between Goth and Renaissance was?
    A Florentine named Giotto di Bondone who was known for his frescoes.
  51. What was the key advance that was visible in Giotto's work was his use of...
    The simple perspective, by overlapping and modeling his figures in the round.
  52. Giotto was different from many Gothic works as he...
    gave his figures powerful gestures and emotional expressions.
  53. Who were major patrons of the arts during the Renaissance and why?
    The wealthy families because the invention of paper money allowed vast private fortunes to be accumulated.
  54. Why did Greek and Roman works have such a tremendous impact on the Renaissance?
    Because these works were readily accessible in Italy.
  55. Unlike with the Greeks where artists were considered artisans, the Renaissance artists were recognized as?
    Intellectual figures.
  56. Who won the competition in Florence for the doors of the new baptistery?
    Lorenzo Ghiberti who had the design of Isaac as classical Greek figure being sacrificed.  It was so popular he made a second set of doors that Michelangelo dubbed the "Gates of Paridise."
  57. What were the "Gates of Paradise?"
    The second set of doors the Lorenzo Ghiberti designed.
  58. Who received the second place award?
    Filippo Brunelleschi
  59. How did Brunelleschi complete the dome of the Florence cathedral?
    By using a double-shelled dome design.
  60. Brunelleschi is credited with developing what perspective?
    Linear or single vanishing point perspective.
  61. Who put the linear perspective into practice?
    Masaccio who used both linear and aerial and linear perspective in his frescoes.
  62. Who is considered the founder of modern sculpture?
  63. What was the first free standing nude since antiquity?
    David by Donatello.
  64. What was the name of the painting that established a vision of female beauty, and was the first full length nude female since antiquity?
    The Birth of Venus by Botticelli.
  65. What were the two models for the term Renaissance Man?
    Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci
  66. Leonardo da Vinci was known as...
    An architect, engineer, painter, sculptor, scientist, and musician.
  67. What two paintings are so well known that they have become hallmarks of modern culture?
    The Last Supper and The Mona Lisa.
  68. What does sfumato mean and what does it do?
    It means smoke and it blends forms sublty into one another without any perceptible transitions.
  69. Who took a flawed piece of marble and turned i into his version of David?
    Michelangelo di Buonarotti
  70. What were the three paintings that Michelangelo created for Pope Julius II's tomb?
    Moses, The Dying Slave and The Bound Slave.
  71. After Pope Julius II cancelled his tomb what did he commission Michelangelo to do?
    Decorate the 700 square yard roof of the Sistine Chapel.
  72. Who was one of the most influential painters of the High Renaissance?
    Raphael Sanzio.
  73. What was the School of Athens?
    A homage to the great Greek scientists and philosophers.
  74. What was the Sistine Madanna?
    A painting of the Virgin Mary that has endured in religious paintings through the centuries.
  75. Who was credited with making innovations in the subject matter of landscapes?
  76. What was different about the Tempest?
    Giorgione made the landscape the subject and painted that first.
  77. Who was well known for his paintings of his patrons and was recognized as the greatest of the Renaissance artists?
    Titian Vecelli
  78. Who was often linked with the artistic style known as Mannerism?
  79. What are Mannerist works characterized by?
    Distortion of certain elements such as scale and are often recognizable by use of acidic colors and and twisted positioning of their subjects.
  80. What is chiaroscuro?
    The dramatic contrasts of light and dark that heightens the emotional impact of the subjects.
  81. What was the impact of the Reformation on art?
    A move away from the richly decorated churches and religious imagery.
  82. What did the Church do in response to the Reformation
    Launch the Counter Reformation.
  83. What was the Counter Reformation?
    A re-emphasis on lavish decoration and art of a highly dramatic and emotional nature.
  84. Who was one of the artists most closely associated with the Counter Reformation?
    Dominikos Theotokopoulos a.k.a. El Greco.
  85. The works of El Greco and Tintoretto can be seen as transitions between...
    The Renaissance and the Baroque period.
Card Set
Art 12-18
ACDEDC Art 12-18