1. Asexual Reproduction
    reproduce by itself
  2. Asexual
    Offspring that inherit genes from one parent
  3. Sexual Reproduction
    Offspring that inherit genes of both parents combined
  4. DNA
    • Neucleic Acid(macromolecule)
    • Nucleotide = monomer unit
    • deoxyribose sugar
    • nitrogen base phosphate group
  5. Double Helix
    Structure of DNA
  6. Chromatin
    • Thing and stringy, can't see under microscope
    • DNA wrapped loosly arond protein
    • As a cell enters mitosis the chromatin condenses into chromosomes
  7. Chromosomes
    when chromatids seperate the individual strands are called chromosomes
  8. Sex Chromosomes
    Chromosomes that determine an individuals gender
  9. Autosomes
    any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
  10. Sister Chromatids
    two identically joined copies of the same chromosome
  11. Centromere
    where the two chromatids attach at the center
  12. Cell Cycle
    The process that a cell goes through when doubling
  13. Interphase
    • NONDIVIDING stafe
    • -carries out normal metabolic processes and functions
  14. Go
    • Normal day activities of the cell
    • (g stands for gap)
  15. G1
    Growth phase
  16. S - phase
    • Genetic material duplicates (DNA replication)
    • (S stands for synthesis)
  17. G2
    • Growth phase
    • cell prepares to divide
  18. M - phase
    Mitotic phase
  19. Mitosis
    Nucleus and duplicated chromosomes divide into two "daughter" neclei
  20. Cytokinesis
    Process by which the cytoplasm is split in order to form two seperate cells
  21. Somatic Cells
    Body cells
  22. Centrosomes
    • contain centrioles (only in animal cells)
    • release microtubles to for the mitotic spindle
  23. Phases of mitosis
    • Prophase - pro = before
    • Metaphase - meta - middle
    • anaphase - apart
    • telphase

  24. Prophase
    • -Neucleolus goes away
    • -Nuclear envelope breaks up
    • -Spindle forming
    • -Chromosome consisting of two sister cromatids
  25. Metaphase
    • -Spindle microtubles
    • -2 chromatids
  26. Anaphase
    -Identical daughter chromosomes
  27. Telophase
    • -Chromosomes uncoiling
    • -Neuclear envelope forming
    • -Cell dividing into two
  28. Cancer
    • -Disease caused by the severe disruption of the mechanisms that normally control the cell cycle
    • -Uncontrolled Cell division
  29. Tumor supprressor Gene
    Halts Cell Division
  30. Neoplasm(Tumor)
    • Abnormal new growth of tissue
    • Types:
    • -Benign
    • -Malignant
  31. Benign Tumor
    • NON-cancerous
    • -They CANNOT spread or invade other parts of your body
    • -They CAN be dangerous i they press vital organs, such as your brain
  32. Malignant TUmor
    Cancer cells can migrate and form tumors elsewhere in the body
  33. Metastasis
    The spread of cancer beyond their original site
  34. Radiation therapy
    Injures or Destroys cells in the area being treated by damaging their DNA, making it impossible for more growth and divide
  35. Chemotherapy
    Chemicals that distrupt Cell division
  36. Homologous Chromosomes
    • -same chromosome structure
    • -carries the same sequence of genes
  37. Diploid
    • 2 sets of chromosomes
    • -one from mom
    • -one from dad
  38. Haploid
    • One set of chromosomes
    • -Combination of chromosomes from mom and dad
  39. Karyotype
    the representations of a chromosome
  40. Gametes
    Sex cells (germ cells)
  41. Zygote
    A cell formed by two gametes
  42. Dizygotic Twins
    • Fraternal twins
    • -twins who develop from two eggs fertilized by two different sperm
  43. Monozygotic Twins
    • Identical twins
    • -Soon after one sperm fertilized one egg to
    • form the zygote, the embryo splits to form
    • two identical embryos
  44. Conjoined Twins
    • -A form of monozygotic twins
    • -Occurs when the zygote of identical twins
    • fails to completely separate
  45. Meiosis
    • Produces 4 non-identical gametes
    • -Cell Division
    • Stage one
    • -Chromosome reduction divison
    • Stage two
    • -Division
  46. Non-disjunction
    • The failure of the chromosomes to properly
    • segregate during meiotic or mitotic anaphase,
    • resulting in daughter cells with abnormal numbers of chromosomes
    • -Down Syndrome
    • -Turner Syndrome
    • -Klinefelter Syndrome
  47. Down Syndrome
    • Mental Retardation
    • - Characteristic Facial Appearance
    • - Increased risk for heart defects (~50% have a heart defect), digestive problems,
    • leukemia, Alzheimer disease, hearing problems, hypothyroidism
    • - Life Expectancy - 55 years
  48. Turner Syndrome
    -presence of only one complete X chromosome and no Y chromosome
  49. Klinefelter Syndrome
    An abnormal condition in a male characterized by two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome
  50. Chorionic villus sampling
    • -used for women 35 or
    • older
    • -earlier Test: 10-12 wks
    • -increased risk for
    • miscarriage: about 2%
  51. Amniocentesis
    • Used for women 35 or
    • older
    • -Test: 16-18 wks
    • -Increased risk for
    • miscarriage: less than 1%
  52. Crossing Over
    • exchange of genetic material between
    • homologous chromosomes (tetrad)
  53. Tetrad
    group of 4 chromosomes
  54. Double Helix
    The structure of DNA in a shape of a spiral that consists of paired polynucleotides
  55. Nucleotide
    something that makes up DNA
  56. Nitrogen Base
    • Purines-double ring
    • -Adenine
    • -Guanine
    • Pyrimidines
    • -Cytosine
    • -Thymine
  57. Phosphodiester bonds
    In RNA or DNA that holds a polynucleotide chain together
  58. Antiparallel
    Not parallel
  59. DNA replication
    Replication of DNA
  60. Gene
    A short segment of DNA that contains the instructions for building a protein
  61. Locus
    • Location of a gene on a chromosome
    • - the genes address
  62. Allele
    Variation of a gene
  63. Genotype
    Genetic make up seq. Of DNA
  64. Phenotype
    The organisms physical traits
  65. mRNA
    Messenger ribonucleic acid
  66. rRNA
    Ribosomal RNA
  67. tRNA
    Transfer rna
  68. Genome
    The collection of All of the genes in an organism
  69. Ribosome
    Forms peptide bonds between amino acids in order to for polypeptides
  70. Transcription
    • Step 1- DNA unzips
    • Step 2- form the mRNA strand
  71. Translation
    The process that uses the codons in the mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acid in a polypeptide chain
  72. DNA polymerase
    Addition of nucleotides to form the complementary DNA strand
  73. RNA polymerase
    Adds RNA nucleotides that are complementary with the DNA bases of the gene sequence
  74. Helicase
    Unzips the DNA
  75. Codon
    Three consecutive nucleotides on mRNA that code for a specific amino acid
  76. Anitcodon
    the complimentary sequence of the codon sequence
  77. Genetic Code
    The set of bases and the amino acids they code for
  78. Start Codon
    • Initiation
    • -AUG
  79. Stop Codon
    • Termination
    • -UAG, UAA, or UGA
  80. Mutation
    A permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene
  81. Point Mutation
    • Mutations that effect one nucleotide
    • Types
    • -Substitution
    • -Insertion
    • -Deletion
  82. Substitution Mutation
    Taking one nucleotide out of the original DNA and replacing it with a different nucleotide
  83. Insertion Mutation
    Adding a single nucleotide
  84. Deletion Mutation
    Taking one nucleotide out of the DNA seq.
  85. Silent Mutation
    A mutation that codes for the same amino acid
  86. Frameshift Mutation
    • A mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
    • Types:
    • -Insertion
    • -Deletion
  87. Chromosomal Mutations
    • Involve changes in many nucleotides
    • Types:
    • -Deletion
    • -Duplication
    • -Inversion
    • -Translocation
  88. Epigenetics
    • Refers to all ptovesses that act on DNA and modify the expression of genes
    • Two main processes
    • -Chromatin Remodeling
    • -DNA Methylation
  89. Allele
    Alternate forms of a gene
  90. Homozygous
    • Both alleles for a trait are the same
    • eg. TT or tt
  91. Heterozygous
    • Both alleles are different
    • e.g. Tt
  92. Dominant
    • When only one of the two different alleles in a heterozygous individual appears to affect the trait
    • e.g. T
  93. Recessive
    • The allele that seems to be suppressed by the dominant allele in the heterozygous state
    • e.g. t
  94. Genotype
    • Genetic Makeup of a gene
    • e.g. TT or Tt or tt
  95. Phenotype
    • Observable Trait (gene product)
    • e.g. Tall or Short
  96. True - Breeding
    If allowed to self-pollinate, they would produce offspring identical to themselves.
  97. Hybrid
    The offspring of two different true - breeding varieties
  98. Mendel's Law of Segregation
    The two alleles for a character separate during the formatino of gametes
  99. Monohybrid Cross
    • -A mating event between two individuals involving one gene
    • -Determines the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring based upon the genotypes of the parents
  100. Test-Cross
    Breeds an individual of unkown genotype, but dominant phenotype with a homozygous reccessive individual in order to figure out whethere the parent is homozygous dominant or heterozygous god a given trait
  101. P - generation
    parental generation
  102. F1
    Offspring of the P generation
  103. F2
    The offspring of a cross between two individuals from the F1 generation
  104. Menel's Law of Independent Assortment
    -Genes located on different chromosomes will be inherited indipenditly of each other
  105. Dihybrid Crosses
    • Cross between two individuals that includes two completely different traits
    • -Each type of gene should have a unique leteter symbol
  106. Incomplete Dominance
    Both Alleles are dominant and the heterozygote shows an intermediate phenotype
  107. Codominance
    When heterozygous for two dominant traits, the individual expresses both traits
  108. Multiple Alleles
    There are more than two alleles available in the gene pool out of which only two will be inherited.
  109. Anitigen
    A substance taht can trigger an immune response causing the production of antibodies as part of the body's defence against infection and disease.
  110. Rh-factor
    A protein that is found on red blood cells. If the Rh factor protein is present on the cells, a person is Rh-positive. If there is no Rh factor protein, the person is Rh-negative.
  111. Autosomes
    All chromosomes except the sex chromosomes
  112. Sex Chromosomes
    Chromosomes that deterime the gender of an organism
  113. Sex Linkage
    The location of a gene on a sex chromosome, typically on the X chromosome. (X-linkage)
  114. Polygenic Inheritance
    Traits controlled by multiple genes
  115. Dominant Disorder
    • Only one defective gene is necessary for the person to have the disorder
    • -Every affected individual has at lease one affected parent.
  116. Recessive Disorder
    Both copies of the gene need to be defective in order to have the disorder
  117. Carrier
    Tt(carries a defective gene but does not have the disorder)
  118. Pedigree
    • A diagram that shows the pattern of inheritance of a gene in a family
    • -An individual who exhibits the trait in question is represented by a filled in symbol
  119. ATP
    • Main engery carrier
    • -Verry good at energy transfer
    • -Engergy Currency
    • -Not good at storing engergy
  120. Chemical Work
    • Building or breaking-down a large molecule
    • Energy is required to for bonds within a molecule.
    • Energy is released when bonds are broken in a molecule.
  121. Mechanical Work
    Moving a muscle protein
  122. Transport Work
    Pumping solutes across a membrane
  123. Photosynthesis
    • Process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy (carbohydrates).
    • 6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6+ 6 O2
  124. Mesophyll
    The area of the leaf where chloroplasts are concentrated
  125. Stomata
    Pores in the leaf in which carbon dioxide enters and oxygen leaves
  126. Veins
    • Xylem
    • -Transports water form the roots to the leaves
    • Phloem
    • -Transports sugar from the leaves to the roots
  127. Chloroplast
    A structure that makes photosynthesis happen
  128. Stroma
    where the calvin cycle takes place in the chloroplasts
  129. Thylakoid
    The thylakoid is in the chloroplast
  130. Granum/a
    are in the chloroplasts and store energy
  131. Pigment
    A pigment is something that changes a plants color
  132. Chlorophyll
    Turns the chloroplasts green
  133. Why are cells small?
    The smaller the cells the more cells in your body.
  134. How is Cytokinesis different in animal cells than in plant cell?
    When the plant cells are dividing they form a cell plate.
  135. Explain the process of metastasis.
    • Forming Secondary Tumors
    • -The spread of cancer beyond their original site.
  136. If an organism has 42 chromosomes in the diploid state how many chromosomes will it have in a halpoid state?
  137. What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?
    • Meiosis produces 4 non-identical gametes
    • Mitosis forms two identical somatic cells
  138. Who determined the structure of DNA
    • James Watson and Francis Crick
    • - Were trying to build a three-dimensional model of DNA
    • -They used Rosalind Franklin's x-ray diffraction picture
    • -Determind the structure of DNA was a double helix
  139. Structure of DNA
    • Nucleic Acid
    • -Deoxyribose Sugare
    • -Phosphate group
    • -Nitrogen base
Card Set
bio final