-presence of only one complete X chromosome and no Y chromosome
An abnormal condition in a male characterized by two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome
Chorionic villus sampling
-used for women 35 or
-earlier Test: 10-12 wks
-increased risk for
miscarriage: about 2%
Used for women 35 or
-Test: 16-18 wks
-Increased risk for
miscarriage: less than 1%
exchange of genetic material between
homologous chromosomes (tetrad)
group of 4 chromosomes
The structure of DNA in a shape of a spiral that consists of paired polynucleotides
something that makes up DNA
In RNA or DNA that holds a polynucleotide chain together
Replication of DNA
A short segment of DNA that contains the instructions for building a protein
Location of a gene on a chromosome
- the genes address
Variation of a gene
Genetic make up seq. Of DNA
The organisms physical traits
Messenger ribonucleic acid
The collection of All of the genes in an organism
Forms peptide bonds between amino acids in order to for polypeptides
Step 1- DNA unzips
Step 2- form the mRNA strand
The process that uses the codons in the mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acid in a polypeptide chain
Addition of nucleotides to form the complementary DNA strand
Adds RNA nucleotides that are complementary with the DNA bases of the gene sequence
Unzips the DNA
Three consecutive nucleotides on mRNA that code for a specific amino acid
the complimentary sequence of the codon sequence
The set of bases and the amino acids they code for
-UAG, UAA, or UGA
A permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene
Mutations that effect one nucleotide
Taking one nucleotide out of the original DNA and replacing it with a different nucleotide
Adding a single nucleotide
Taking one nucleotide out of the DNA seq.
A mutation that codes for the same amino acid
A mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
Involve changes in many nucleotides
Refers to all ptovesses that act on DNA and modify the expression of genes
Two main processes
Alternate forms of a gene
Both alleles for a trait are the same
eg. TT or tt
Both alleles are different
When only one of the two different alleles in a heterozygous individual appears to affect the trait
The allele that seems to be suppressed by the dominant allele in the heterozygous state
Genetic Makeup of a gene
e.g. TT or Tt or tt
Observable Trait (gene product)
e.g. Tall or Short
True - Breeding
If allowed to self-pollinate, they would produce offspring identical to themselves.
The offspring of two different true - breeding varieties
Mendel's Law of Segregation
The two alleles for a character separate during the formatino of gametes
-A mating event between two individuals involving one gene
-Determines the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring based upon the genotypes of the parents
Breeds an individual of unkown genotype, but dominant phenotype with a homozygous reccessive individual in order to figure out whethere the parent is homozygous dominant or heterozygous god a given trait
P - generation
Offspring of the P generation
The offspring of a cross between two individuals from the F1 generation
Menel's Law of Independent Assortment
-Genes located on different chromosomes will be inherited indipenditly of each other
Cross between two individuals that includes two completely different traits
-Each type of gene should have a unique leteter symbol
Both Alleles are dominant and the heterozygote shows an intermediate phenotype
When heterozygous for two dominant traits, the individual expresses both traits
There are more than two alleles available in the gene pool out of which only two will be inherited.
A substance taht can trigger an immune response causing the production of antibodies as part of the body's defence against infection and disease.
A protein that is found on red blood cells. If the Rh factor protein is present on the cells, a person is Rh-positive. If there is no Rh factor protein, the person is Rh-negative.
All chromosomes except the sex chromosomes
Chromosomes that deterime the gender of an organism
The location of a gene on a sex chromosome, typically on the X chromosome. (X-linkage)
Traits controlled by multiple genes
Only one defective gene is necessary for the person to have the disorder
-Every affected individual has at lease one affected parent.
Both copies of the gene need to be defective in order to have the disorder
Tt(carries a defective gene but does not have the disorder)
A diagram that shows the pattern of inheritance of a gene in a family
-An individual who exhibits the trait in question is represented by a filled in symbol
Main engery carrier
-Verry good at energy transfer
-Not good at storing engergy
Building or breaking-down a large molecule
Energy is required to for bonds within a molecule.
Energy is released when bonds are broken in a molecule.
Moving a muscle protein
Pumping solutes across a membrane
Process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy (carbohydrates).
6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6+ 6 O2
The area of the leaf where chloroplasts are concentrated
Pores in the leaf in which carbon dioxide enters and oxygen leaves
-Transports water form the roots to the leaves
-Transports sugar from the leaves to the roots
A structure that makes photosynthesis happen
where the calvin cycle takes place in the chloroplasts
The thylakoid is in the chloroplast
are in the chloroplasts and store energy
A pigment is something that changes a plants color
Turns the chloroplasts green
Why are cells small?
The smaller the cells the more cells in your body.
How is Cytokinesis different in animal cells than in plant cell?
When the plant cells are dividing they form a cell plate.
Explain the process of metastasis.
Forming Secondary Tumors
-The spread of cancer beyond their original site.
If an organism has 42 chromosomes in the diploid state how many chromosomes will it have in a halpoid state?
What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?
Meiosis produces 4 non-identical gametes
Mitosis forms two identical somatic cells
Who determined the structure of DNA
James Watson and Francis Crick
- Were trying to build a three-dimensional model of DNA
-They used Rosalind Franklin's x-ray diffraction picture
-Determind the structure of DNA was a double helix