Exam 2 Anatomy (Integumentary System)

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  1. Integumentary System
    Skin system
  2. Organs making up the Integumentary System
    • (1) Skin
    • (2) Derivatives- hair, nails, glands, and nerve endings
  3. Structure of Skin
    • (1) Epidermis- outer layer made of epithelium
    • (2) Inner thicker dermis- made of connective tissue, overlies the subcutaneous layer
  4. Functions of the Skin
    • (1) Regulation of body temperature
    • (2) Protection
    • (3) Sensation
    • (4) Excretion
    • (5) Immunity
    • (6) Blood reservoir
    • (7) Synthesis of vitamin D
  5. Epidermis
    composed: stratified squamous and four principal types of cells: (1) keratinocytes (tonofilaments in cytoskeleton make keratin), (2) melanocytes (skin color), (3) Langerhans cells (immunity), and (4) Merkel cells (sensory touch)
  6. Layers of Skin (pic)
    • Stratum Corneum (Superficial)
    • Stratum Lucidum
    • Stratum Granulosum
    • Stratum Spinosum
    • Stratum Basale (Deepest)
  7. Most Deepest Layer of the Epidermis
    Stratum Basale (stratum germinativum)
    • attached to the underlying dermis
    • single row of stem cells- undergoes continuous cell division and produces all other layers
    • basal cells divide:
    • (1) one daughter cell is pushed into the cell layer above to being specialization into a mature keratinocyte
    • (2) other daughter cell remains in the basal layer to produce new keratinocytes
  8. 2nd Deepest Layer of Epidermis
    Stratum Spinosum (prickly layer)
    • several layers of keratinocytes unified by desmosomes
    • contain thick bundles of intermediate filaments made of pre-keratin
  9. 3rd Deepest Layer of Epidermis
    Strantum Granulosum (granular layer)
    • 4-6 cell layers
    • keratinocyte appearance changes- flatten, nuclei and organelles begin to disintegrate form granules; (1) keratohyaline granules- help to form keratin in upper layers (2) lamellar granules- water barrier
  10. 4th Deepest Layer of Epidermis
    Stratum Lucidum (clear layer)
    • 2-3 rows of clear, flat, dead keratinocytes
    • tonofilaments
  11. Most Superficial Layer of Epidermis
    Stratum Corneum (horny layer)
    • 20-30 layers of dead cells
    • 3/4 epidermal thickness
    • glycolipid- waterproofs layer
    • protection, water loss
  12. Dermis
    • bellow of epidermis
    • strong flexible connective tissue
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Exam 2 Anatomy (Integumentary System)
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