1. protozoans
    • not worms; free-living organisms
    • mostly one cell
    • disease related to stress of host
  2. common diseases associated with protozoans
    • coccidiosis
    • malaria
    • piroplasmosis
    • trichomoniasis
    • giardiasis
    • hemobartonellosis
    • erhlichiosis
  3. Isospora spp. common name
  4. Coccidia inhabit
    • intestinal tract
    • bright red bloody diarrhea
  5. flagellates
    have a slender flagella (whiplike appendage that enables them to swim)

    divided into hemoflagellates (in blood) and mucoflagellates (in intestinal tract)
  6. hemoflagellates
    • live in blood, lymph, and tissue spaces
    • transmitted indirectly by blood sucking flies (Stomoxys calcitrans- stable fly)
  7. common mechanical vector of hemoflagellates
    Stomoxys calcitrans- stable fly
  8. mucoflagellates
    • live in intestinal tract or genital tract
    • spread directly through feces or genital discharge
  9. Hemoflagellates
    • Trypanosoma brucci
    • Trypanosoma equiperdum
    • Trypanosoma cruzi
  10. regardless of species is referred to as African Sleeping Sickness

    condition: Trypanosomiasis
  11. Trypanosoma brucci
    • ruminants
    • causes Nagana
    • intermediate host(between wild&domestic cattle): Tsetse fly
  12. Trypanosoma equiperdum
    • horses
    • causes Dourine "Silver Dollar" plaques-hair falls off
    • one of first reportable diseases
    • no intermediate host: uses direct sexual contact
  13. only hemoflagellate that is a venereal disease
    Trypanosoma equiperdum
  14. Trypanosoma cruzi
    • hemoflagellate in dogs
    • extraceullar (not in blood cells:in between blood cells)
    • transmitted by blood feeding arthropods, "assassin bugs", flying arthropods, contact with feces of infected insects
  15. Trypanosoma cruzi in humans
    Chagas Disease
  16. Leishmaniasis
    • hemoprotozoan
    • primarily in Tx&Fl beaches
    • intracellular-found w/in blood vessels, spleen, liver, other organs
    • transmitted by sandfly bite
  17. Hemo-Apicomplexans
    intracellular protozoans in blood but not flagellated

    • Babesia canis
    • Cytauxzoon felis
  18. Babesia canis
    • hemo-apicomplexan in dog
    • intracellular parasite: within RBC (so function to kill blood cell)

    • transmitted by the tick, Boophilus annulatus¬†
    • also called canine piroplasmosis
  19. Cytauxzoon felis
    • hemo-apicomplexan of cat
    • intracellular parasite: within RBC (so function to kill blood cell)

    transmitted by the tick, Amblyomma americanum
  20. Mucoflagellates
    • Giardia
    • Trichomonads
    • Sporozoa (Coccidia, Piroplasms)
    • Toxoplasma
    • Amoebae
    • Ciliates
    • Cryptosporidium
    • Sarcocysts
  21. Giardia live in
    • small intestine (unlike other mucoflagellates)
    • symptoms: diarrhea, enteritis

    zoonotic problem with contaminated water supplies
  22. treat Giardiasis with
  23. pyriform shape
    pear shape
  24. Trichomonads
    • Trichomonas fetus
    • Trichomonas vaginalis
  25. Trichomonas fetus
    • lives in cecum and colon
    • multiplying in fluid feces-blamed for diarrhea
    • can cause abortion, pyometra, sterility
  26. Trichomonas vaginalis
    common in women but not considered pathogen
  27. pyorrhea
    • Vincent's Angina
    • pus in the gums
    • "trench mouth"

    caused by mucoflagellated protozoan, trichomonas&bacteria
  28. 3 Genus of Coccidia
    • Eimeria- farm animals
    • Isospora- dog, cat, swine, pocket pets
    • Toxoplasma-all domestic animals
    • Cryptosporidium and Sarcocysts- zoonotic
  29. coccidia in dog/cat
    Isospora canis/felis
  30. diagnosis of coccidia
    find eggs oocysts in host feces
  31. Protozoan lifecycle
    • in host:
    • 1.sporozoite
    • 2.merozoite
    • 3.gamont
    • 4.macrogamete&microgamete
    • 5.zygote
    • 6.oocysts

    • outside host:
    • 7.oocysts
    • 8.sporocysts
    • 9.sporozoite
  32. lifecycles of coccidia
    • eimeria: direct
    • isospora: direct or indirect
    • toxoplasma: direct or indirect
  33. Coccidian lifecycle
    • sporozoite swallowed, invade cells of mucosa and divide to form Merozoites
    • Merozoites leave the cells and enter new cells and develop into male/female Gamonts
    • Gamonts mature to Macrogametes
    • male Macrogametes divide into Microgamete to fertilize female Macrogametes
    • female Macrogametes give rise to Zygotes
    • as food materials accumulate around Zygote, it becomes Oocysts
    • Oocysts released at death of mucosa cell
    • dog consumes Oocysts >2-4 sporocysts>4 sporozoites> process starts over again..
  34. definitive host of Toxoplasma gondii
    cat (Felidae family)

    • if gets in any other animal/human will go all over the body
    • goes to urogenital area in pregnant women&causes abortion
  35. if give antibiotics and temp does not go down within 24 hrs, dealing with:
    protozoan or fungus
  36. lifecycle of toxoplasma
    • eggs passed from cat
    • Oocysts, sporozoites are picked up by intermediate host
    • Sporozoites(sporocysts) migrate into the tissues of intermediates and become encysted or pass to the placenta in human and cause abortions
    • cat eats intermediate host thus picks up sporozoite, thus completing the lifecycle
  37. cats with Toxoplasma present with
    • dyspnea
    • tachypnea
    • icterus
    • abdominal disorder
    • persistent pyrexia
  38. Protozoa of dog&cat in feces
    • Isospora oocyst
    • Toxoplasma oocyst
    • Giardia
    • Trichomonas
    • Entamoeba histolytica
  39. Protozoa of dog&cat in blood
    • Babesia canis
    • Trypasnosoma cruzi
    • Haemobartonella
  40. Protozoa of dog&cat in tissues
    • Toxoplasma cysts
    • Entamoeba histolytica
  41. Protozoa of dog&cat in instestines
    • Isospora
    • Toxoplasma
    • Entamoeba
  42. common protozoan diseases of dog&cat
    • Coccidiosis
    • Giardiasis
    • Intestinal Trichomonosis
    • Babesiosis
    • Haemobartonellosis
  43. pathogenic Protozoa of cattle
    • feces: Eimeria
    • blood: Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma centrale
    • reproductive tract: Trichomonas fetus
    • tissues: Toxoplasma cysts
    • intestines: Eimeria
  44. common protozoan diseases of cattle
    • Coccidiosis
    • Anaplasmosis
    • Genital Tichomonosis
  45. diarrhea caused by these 4 mucoflagellates
    • Amoebae
    • Ciliates
    • Cryptosporidium
    • Sarcocysts
  46. Entamoeba histolytica
    etiology that produces amebic dysentery in humans

    primary pathology is the acute diarrhea in dogs
  47. Balantidium coli
    ciliated protozoan found occasionally in cecum and colon of dogs

    • diarrhea
    • seen more in pigs
  48. Cryptosporidium
    • small intestine
    • zoonotic
  49. Sarcocysts
    • small intestine
    • eggs sporulated when passed in feces
    • each oocyst contains 2 sporocysts, each with 4 sporozoites
  50. pathogenic protozoa of sheep&goats
    • feces: Eimeria
    • tissues: Toxoplasma cysts
    • intestinal: Eimeria

    common protozoal diseases: Coccidiosis
  51. pathogenic protozoa of horses
    • feces: Trichomonas equi
    • blood: Babesia caballi, Babesia equi

    common protozoal diseases: Intestinal Trichomonosis, Babesiosis
  52. pathogenic protozoa of swine
    • feces: Eimeria, Balatidium coli, Isospora
    • blood: Eperythrozoon suis
    • tissues: Toxoplasma
    • intestines: Balantidium coli, Eimeria, Isospora

    common protozoal diseases: Eperythrozoonosis (most feared)
  53. which group of animals has the most protozoan problems?
  54. pathogenic protozoa of poultry
    • crop content: Trichomonas
    • intestinal: Eimeria, Hexamita
    • cecal: Histomonas, Eimeria
    • blood: Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus
    • tissues: Histomonas (liver) Toxoplasma cysts
    • inestines&cecal: Eimeria, Histomonas

    common protozoal diseases: Coccidiosis, Histomonosis, Crop Trichomonosis, Hexamitosis, Leucocytozoonosis
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